Thyroid hormones


Thyroid hormones are hormones produced by the thyroid gland that have roles in metabolism. They are small molecules based on the amino acid tyrosine. The major thyroid hormones are triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), which can be processed by decarboxylation and deiodination by deiodinases, which are selenium-containing enzymes.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research | | open

    The protein A-FABP is secreted from adipocytes and known to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. Here the authors show A-FABP enhances thermogenesis by promoting the conversion of thyroxine T4 to the bioactive form, T3, in brown adipocytes, and by enhancing fatty acid uptake of brown fat.

    • Lingling Shu
    • , Ruby L. C. Hoo
    • , Xiaoping Wu
    • , Yong Pan
    • , Ida P. C. Lee
    • , Lai Yee Cheong
    • , Stefan R Bornstein
    • , Xianglu Rong
    • , Jiao Guo
    •  & Aimin Xu
  • Reviews |

    Thyroid hormones have an important role in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis, and subtle changes in thyroid hormone concentrations adversely influence the cardiovascular system. In this Review, Jabbar et al. discuss the role of thyroid hormones in the pathogenesis and management of cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure and acute myocardial infarction, and outline the utility of therapy with thyroid hormones for the management of these conditions.

    • Avais Jabbar
    • , Alessandro Pingitore
    • , Simon H. S. Pearce
    • , Azfar Zaman
    • , Giorgio Iervasi
    •  & Salman Razvi
  • Reviews |

    The NADPH oxidase family of enzymes produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a critical substrate for thyroid hormone synthesis. However, H2O2 is also a potent oxidant that can cause DNA damage, which might lead to thyroid carcinogenesis. Here, the authors discuss the physiological attributes of thyroid NADPH oxidases and their pathological involvement in thyroid cancer.

    • Rabii Ameziane-El-Hassani
    • , Martin Schlumberger
    •  & Corinne Dupuy
  • Reviews |

    This Review outlines the molecular basis of nongenomic mechanisms of thyroid hormone action. Davis and colleagues also discuss the possible physiological or pathophysiological consequences of these actions, as well as the interactions between nongenomic and genomic effects of thyroid hormone.

    • Paul J. Davis
    • , Fernando Goglia
    •  & Jack L. Leonard
  • Reviews |

    This Review outlines the physiologic role of the iodothyronine deiodinases, as well as the changes that occur in hypothyroidism, with a particular focus on their role in preserving thyroid hormone levels in the brain. Novel findings that underscore the clinical importance of iodothyronine deiodinases in hypothyroidism are also discussed.

    • Balázs Gereben
    • , Elizabeth A. McAninch
    • , Miriam O. Ribeiro
    •  & Antonio C. Bianco

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