Thyroid gland

Definition

The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland located in the neck underneath the cartilage tissue that forms the Adam's apple. By producing hormones – such as tri-iodothyronine (T3), tetraiodothyronine (T4) and calcitonin – the thyroid gland regulates a number of functions, for example the metabolic rate of cells and blood calcium levels.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Reviews |

    Collectively known as the thyroid transcription factors (TTFs), expression of NKX2-1, FOXE1, PAX8 and HHEX is essential for normal development and maintenance of the adult thyroid gland. In this Review, the authors discuss the roles of each of TTFs in the developing and adult thyroid gland, as well as in non-thyroid tissues. Mutations in the genes encoding TTFs can result in a spectrum of phenotypes, such as thyroid dysgenesis and thyroid cancer, which are also addressed.

    • Lara P. Fernández
    • , Arístides López-Márquez
    •  & Pilar Santisteban
  • Reviews |

    Mutations in the genes that encode the thyroid hormone receptors (THRs), THRA and THRB, result in resistance to thyroid hormone disorders, RTHα and RTHβ, respectively. In this Review, the authors discuss mutations that have been identified in patients with RTH and mouse models of these disorders that have contributed to understanding the physiology and functions of THRs.

    • Tânia M. Ortiga-Carvalho
    • , Aniket R. Sidhaye
    •  & Fredric E. Wondisford
  • Reviews |

    The recommended daily iodine intake is 150 µg in adults who are not pregnant or lactating. Most people can tolerate levels above this threshold, but excess iodine exposure or ingestion can result in thyroid dysfunction in certain susceptible individuals. This article discusses the consequences of excess iodine.

    • Angela M. Leung
    •  & Lewis E. Braverman
  • Reviews |

    This Review discusses paradigm shifts in the treatment of hypothyroidism and their influence on clinical practice—a far from trivial issue, given the number of affected patients. Although levothyroxine monotherapy remains the standard treatment for hypothyroidism, the latest guidelines indicate that levothyroxine plus liothyronine combination therapy might be considered in specific circumstances.

    • Wilmar M. Wiersinga
  • Reviews |

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a class of powerful gene expression regulators with a fundamental role in the onset and progression of human cancers. This Review summarizes the emerging knowledge on miRNA deregulation in thyroid neoplasias, the mechanisms through which miRNA deregulation might promote thyroid cell transformation, and how this knowledge could be harnessed for the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid neoplasias.

    • Pierlorenzo Pallante
    • , Sabrina Battista
    • , Giovanna Maria Pierantoni
    •  & Alfredo Fusco

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