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T cells are white blood cells that are important for adaptive immunity. They have unique cell surface receptors that are generated by randomly assorting genes. These receptors allow T cells to sense and respond to diverse types of infection.
T cells need to undergo rapid proliferation in response to antigenic stimulation. Here the authors show that the Ets family transcription factor GABP is required for T-cell homeostasis and response to infection by inducing Mcm3 and Mcm5 expression and enabling S-phase entry.
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is mediated by specific CD4 and B cells, but the relative contribution of extrafollicular and germinal centre (GC) T-B interaction is unclear. Here the authors show that the extrafollicular expansion of a specific CD4 T subset is sufficient for inducing cGVHD while GC is dispensable.
Thymocytes are screened by two processes, termed positive and negative selections, which are permissive only for immature thymocytes with intermediate avidity to the selecting ligands. Here the authors show that the nuclear receptor NCoR1 suppresses Bim1 to inhibit negative selection and promote thymocyte survival.
Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases (PI3K) γ and δ are key regulators of T cell signaling. Here the author show, using mouse heart allograft transplantation models, that PI3Kγ or PI3Kδ deficiency prolongs graft survival, but selective inhibition of PI3Kγ or PI3Kδ reveals alternative transplant survival outcomes post CTLA4-Ig treatment.
In this Review, the authors detail the complex expression patterns and regulation of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) and its ligands. The authors focus on the importance of understanding these pathways in order to optimize the efficiency and safety of immune checkpoint blockade in patients.
Dysfunctional immunity is associated with dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Structural analyses reveal that a key germline-encoded contact between the T cell antigen receptor and a peptide underpins the immunodominance of dengue-virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses of weak affinity.
The differentiation of follicular regulatory T cells can be limited by the cytokine IL-2, preventing the emergence of autoantibodies. This research identifies these cells as key regulators of the germinal center response.
Zhang et al. report that CD8+ tumour-infiltrating T lymphocytes exposed to a hypoglycaemic and hypoxic tumour microenvironment enhance PPARα signalling and fatty acid catabolism to partially preserve effector functions and increase the efficacy of immunotherapy in melanoma mouse models.