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Shamil Sunyaev, David Beier and colleagues report an analysis of the fitness effects of heterozygous protein-truncating variants from the Exome Aggregation Consortium. They find that high heterozygous selection coefficients are enriched in Mendelian disease-associated genes and essential mouse genes, suggesting that this coefficient can be used to prioritize candidate disease-associated genes from clinical exome-sequencing data.
Adam Siepel and colleagues report a new computational method, LINSIGHT, that combines evolutionary conservation and functional genomic information to predict the fitness consequences of noncoding mutations in the human genome. They use LINSIGHT to show that fitness consequences of enhancer mutations depend on tissue and cell type specificity and promoter constraints.