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RNA vaccines are composed of the nucleic acid RNA, which encode antigen genes of an infectious agent. When administered to host cells, the RNA is translated into protein antigens that elicit protective immunity against the infectious agent.
A single, low-dose intradermal immunization with lipid-nanoparticle-encapsulated nucleoside-modified mRNA encoding the pre-membrane and envelope glycoproteins of Zika virus protects both mice and rhesus macaques against infection and elicits rapid and long-lasting neutralizing antibody responses.
The development of a nanoparticle RNA vaccine is reported that preferentially targets dendritic cells after systemic administration, and is shown to provide durable interferon-α-dependent antigen-specific immunity in mouse tumour models; initial results in advanced melanoma patients indicate potential efficacy in humans.
The therapeutic potential of in vitro-transcribed mRNA (IVT mRNA) extends from prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines to applications such as protein replacement and genome engineering. In this Review, the authors describe the recent developments in the IVT mRNA field, discuss the class-specific challenges with regards to translating IVT mRNA into a biopharmaceutical, and provide an overview of IVT mRNA drugs in development for different indications.
CureVac and the Friedrich Loeffler Institute have in vivo evidence that an mRNA-based vaccine can prevent influenza A infection. The results provide proof of concept for the company's vaccine platform in infectious disease, and Sanofi has options to the technology.