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Patients with chronic kidney disease have elevated levels of carbamoylated proteins. Here the authors review the mechanisms of carbamoylation, the effects of this post-translational modification on renal function and strategies to reduce the carbamoylation load.
This Review provides an overview of the molecular determinants of renal cell carcinoma, how understanding the underlying mechanisms of disease has fuelled the development of targeted therapies, and tools to assess the value of these agents.
Outcomes of patients with high-risk, localized renal cancer depend on optimal patient stratification, surgical management, and systemic therapy selection. Blick et al. discuss the current knowledge on these topics and provide an overview of interventions that are currently being investigated in clinical trials.
Intratumour heterogeneity is a critical driver of cancer progression and treatment failure. TRACERx Renal is a prospective study that aims to define the evolutionary trajectories of renal cancer in space and time through multiregion and longitudinal tumour sampling.
A mouse model with combined renal epithelium-specific deletion of Vhl, Trp53 and Rb1 that develops clear-cell renal cell carcinoma provides a research tool for investigating the mechanisms that drive this cancer, and for evaluating the efficacy of novel therapeutic agents.