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Sepsis is an infrequent but serious adverse risk of transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsy. A new study evaluated whether the use of single-dose ertapenem, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, resulted in increased carbapenem resistance following biopsy. However, physicians need to carefully consider the risks of antibiotic resistance when balancing the benefit of broad-spectrum antibiosis against a 1% risk of sepsis.
Despite a rapid increase in the use of anticancer immunotherapy, our understanding of the mechanisms of action and the patients' responses remains limited. The discovery of immune inhibitory markers in the tumour microenvironment following immunotherapy should improve our understanding and might enable us to better apply combination therapies.