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Peroxisomes are cytoplasmic organelles that catalyse the breakdown of very long chain fatty acids through beta-oxidation. Peroxisomes also have an important role in generating and degrading reactive oxygen species.
In this Review, Prinz and co-authors discuss the role of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the de novo generation of peroxisomes, lipid droplets and omegasomes, and how this requires subdomains with specific protein and lipid compositions.
This protocol from Rodrigues et al. describes a cell-free in vitro system to examine the machinery that mediates peroxisomal protein import. The system allows the user to block components of the machinery at virtually any step.
mTOR is a central controller that integrates many inputs to regulate cell growth and ensure cellular homeostasis. The mTORC1 inhibitor TSC (tuberous sclerosis complex) on the peroxisome is found to inhibit mTORC1 in response to endogenous reactive oxygen species. Thus, mTOR may avoid confounding different inputs by sensing them at different cellular locations.