Pattern recognition receptors

Definition

Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are expressed by cells in the body in order to sense molecules that are associated with infection or tissue damage. They are important for activating the immune system.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research | | open

    Production of reactive oxygen species is an ancient antimicrobial mechanism, but its role in antiviral defense in mammals is unclear. Here, To et al. show that virus infection activates endosomal NOX2 oxidase and restricts TLR7 signaling, and that an endosomal NOX2 inhibitor decreases viral pathogenicity.

    • Eunice E. To
    • , Ross Vlahos
    • , Raymond Luong
    • , Michelle L. Halls
    • , Patrick C. Reading
    • , Paul T. King
    • , Christopher Chan
    • , Grant R. Drummond
    • , Christopher G. Sobey
    • , Brad R. S. Broughton
    • , Malcolm R. Starkey
    • , Renee van der Sluis
    • , Sharon R. Lewin
    • , Steven Bozinovski
    • , Luke A. J. O’Neill
    • , Tim Quach
    • , Christopher J. H. Porter
    • , Doug A. Brooks
    • , John J. O’Leary
    •  & Stavros Selemidis
  • Research | | open

    Prolonged NOD2 ligand engagement induces tolerance and attenuated NOD2 signalling, but the molecular mechanisms leading to this tolerance induction are unclear. Here the authors show that the degradation of a NOD2 adaptor, RIP2, by the E3 ligase ZNRF4 is essential for the down-regulation of NOD2 signalling.

    • Pradeep Bist
    • , Wan Shoo Cheong
    • , Aylwin Ng
    • , Neha Dikshit
    • , Bae-Hoon Kim
    • , Niyas Kudukkil Pulloor
    • , Hanif Javanmard Khameneh
    • , Matija Hedl
    • , Avinash R. Shenoy
    • , Vanniarajan Balamuralidhar
    • , Najib Bin Abdul Malik
    • , Michelle Hong
    • , Albert Neutzner
    • , Keh-Chuang Chin
    • , Koichi S. Kobayashi
    • , Antonio Bertoletti
    • , Alessandra Mortellaro
    • , Clara Abraham
    • , John D. MacMicking
    • , Ramnik J. Xavier
    •  & Bindu Sukumaran
  • Research | | open

    Microtubules regulate activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, but the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. Here the authors show that MARK4 binds NLRP3 and shuttles it to the microtubule-organizing centre to promote optimal inflammasome activation.

    • Xuan Li
    • , Sarah Thome
    • , Xiaodan Ma
    • , Mamta Amrute-Nayak
    • , Alison Finigan
    • , Lauren Kitt
    • , Leanne Masters
    • , John R. James
    • , Yuguang Shi
    • , Guoyu Meng
    •  & Ziad Mallat
  • Research |

    The inflammasome receptor Nlrp9b defends against enteric viruses by interacting with double-stranded viral RNA-bound helicase Dhx9, triggering gasdermin-D-dependent pyroptotic cell death of infected cells and secretion of Il-18.

    • Shu Zhu
    • , Siyuan Ding
    • , Penghua Wang
    • , Zheng Wei
    • , Wen Pan
    • , Noah W. Palm
    • , Yi Yang
    • , Hua Yu
    • , Hua-Bing Li
    • , Geng Wang
    • , Xuqiu Lei
    • , Marcel R. de Zoete
    • , Jun Zhao
    • , Yunjiang Zheng
    • , Haiwei Chen
    • , Yujiao Zhao
    • , Kellie A. Jurado
    • , Ningguo Feng
    • , Liang Shan
    • , Yuval Kluger
    • , Jun Lu
    • , Clara Abraham
    • , Erol Fikrig
    • , Harry B. Greenberg
    •  & Richard A. Flavell
    Nature 546, 667–670

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