Parathyroid hormone

Definition

Parathyroid hormone is a hormone synthesized and released into the blood stream by the parathyroid glands. It regulates phosphorous and calcium metabolism in the body and functions in neuromuscular excitation and blood clotting.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Reviews |

    Hypoparathyroidism is a disease characterized by inadequately low circulating levels of parathyroid hormone resulting in low calcium levels and increased phosphate levels in the blood. In this Primer, Mannstadt et al. summarize current knowledge of the prevalence, pathophysiology, clinical presentation and management of hypoparathyroidism.

    • Michael Mannstadt
    • , John P. Bilezikian
    • , Rajesh V. Thakker
    • , Fadil M. Hannan
    • , Bart L. Clarke
    • , Lars Rejnmark
    • , Deborah M. Mitchell
    • , Tamara J. Vokes
    • , Karen K. Winer
    •  & Dolores M. Shoback
  • Reviews |

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is characterized by excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone due to a single benign adenoma or multiglandular disease. In this Primer, Bilezikian et al. describe the epidemiology, clinical presentations, genetics, evaluation and guidelines for the management of PHPT.

    • John P. Bilezikian
    • , Natalie E. Cusano
    • , Aliya A. Khan
    • , Jian-Min Liu
    • , Claudio Marcocci
    •  & Francisco Bandeira
  • Reviews |

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) can detect small changes in serum calcium levels and feeds back to modulate parathyroid hormone secretion to elicit appropriate biological responses in different tissues. In this Review, Daniela Riccardi and Giovanna Valenti describe the localization of the CaSR within the nephron and outline its differential functions in different nephron segments. They outline how modulation of the CaSR by pharmacologic approaches could be used in the therapeutic management of disorders such as hyperparathyroidism or hypercalciuric disorders.

    • Daniela Riccardi
    •  & Giovanna Valenti
  • Research | | open

    How the parathyroid hormone-related protein receptor (PPR) and its ligand act in root formation and tooth eruption is unclear. Here, the authors identify osterix-expressing dental mesenchymal cells as progenitors for root formation and that PPR signalling mediates their differentiation and tooth eruption.

    • Wanida Ono
    • , Naoko Sakagami
    • , Shigeki Nishimori
    • , Noriaki Ono
    •  & Henry M. Kronenberg
  • Reviews |

    Skeletal secretion of fibroblast growth factor 23 regulates systemic phosphate homeostasis and vitamin D metabolism. This Review focuses on the rapidly growing knowledge of this regulation, which is challenging how several diseases are conceptualized, including the definition of vitamin D deficiency, the pathogenesis of secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease and the relationship between disordered mineral metabolism and cardiovascular mortality.

    • L. Darryl Quarles

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