Parathyroid glands

Definition

The parathyroid glands are two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the neck, adjacent to the two lobes of the thyroid gland. They secrete parathyroid hormone, which regulates calcium, phosphorous and magnesium levels.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Reviews |

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrine disorder characterized by hypercalcaemia and elevated or inappropriately normal serum levels of parathyroid hormone. Here, Walker and Silverberg review the pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of PHPT, focusing on recent advances in the field.

    • Marcella D. Walker
    •  & Shonni J. Silverberg
  • Reviews |

    Differential diagnosis between pseudohypoparathyroidism and related disorders of disrupted Gsα–cAMP signalling is a challenge for endocrinologists due to shared clinical and molecular characteristics. Here, Giovanna Mantovani and colleagues discuss both the current understanding and future challenges for the clinical and molecular diagnosis, classification and treatment of pseudohypoparathyroidism and related disorders.

    • Giovanna Mantovani
    • , Anna Spada
    •  & Francesca Marta Elli
  • Reviews |

    Parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor (PTHR1) is a family B G-protein-coupled receptor and is involved in the regulation of skeletal development, bone turnover and mineral ion homeostasis. This Review discusses fundamental aspects of ligand-binding and signalling mechanisms at PTHR1, highlighting the relationship between ligand structural modification and variation in PTHR1 signalling responses. The action of these signalling mechanisms in disease states in which PTHR1 function has an important role are also discussed.

    • Ross W. Cheloha
    • , Samuel H. Gellman
    • , Jean-Pierre Vilardaga
    •  & Thomas J. Gardella
  • Reviews |

    The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a G protein-coupled receptor that has a key role in Ca2+ homeostasis via its role in the parathyroid glands and kidneys. New evidence has shown that CaSR also regulates skeletal homeostasis. In this Review, David Goltzman and Geoffrey Hendy discuss the role of CaSR in chondrocytes and development of the cartilagenous growth plate, in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and effects of CaSR on skeletal development and bone turnover.

    • David Goltzman
    •  & Geoffrey N. Hendy

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