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Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by chronic inflammation of the pancreas that results in progressive scarring of the pancreatic tissue, pain and pancreatic gland dysfunction. In this Primer, Kleeff et al. describe the current understanding of chronic pancreatitis and its complications.
Metaplasia, the replacement of one differentiated somatic cell type with another in the same tissue, is a precursor to dysplasia and eventually carcinoma. There are shared principles across different types of tissue metaplasia that may be helpful in clinical considerations.
KRAS oncogene mutations are commonly encountered in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, driving tumour initiation, proliferation, progression and metastasis. Human exosomes engineered to deliver small interfering RNA silencing KRASG12D are highly efficient at specifically targeting pancreatic cancer cells to dramatically reduce RAS activation, cancer cell proliferation and metastatic processes.
Exosomes expressing CD47 and loaded with interfering RNA dodge phagocytosis and accumulate in pancreatic tumours to silence the expression of the oncogene Kras in mice, with remarkable therapeutic efficacy.