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Snakebite envenoming is a neglected tropical disease that particularly affects impoverished populations in the rural tropics. This Primer describes the efforts toward reducing the burden of snakebites, which require input from private, public and non-profit stakeholders worldwide.
Chronic pain is the greatest source of disability globally and claims related to chronic pain feature in many insurance and medico-legal cases. In this Consensus Statement, a presidential task force of the International Association for the Study of Pain examines the capabilities of brain imaging in the diagnosis of chronic pain, and the ethical and legal implications of such uses of brain imaging.
Loss of inhibition in a circuit in the primary somatosensory cortex that controls the activity of layer 5 neurons drives pain hypersensitivity. Restoring this inhibition resets the inhibitory–excitatory balance, producing analgesia.
The checkpoint pathway consisting of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and its receptor, PD-1, modulates immune function in cancer and infection, but unexpectedly, it also silences pain signals in nerves.