Organ transplantation

Definition

Organ transplantation is a procedure in which a functional, intact organ is transferred from one individual to another. The organ is then functional in the recipient. This type of transplantation can occur between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.

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Latest Research and Reviews

  • Reviews |

    To ensure suitability for living kidney donation, donor candidates must be thoroughly evaluated. This Review describes current approaches to the assessment of renal function, haematuria, and cardiac risk in living kidney donor candidates as well as strategies to improve efficiency in the evaluation process, focusing on additional investigations that are commonly ordered by transplant centres rather than the minimum initial screening requirements.

    • Ngan N. Lam
    • , Krista L. Lentine
    •  & Amit X. Garg
  • Reviews |

    Liver transplantation is the best option for patients with early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, the authors summarize the outcomes of liver transplantation, novel surgical techniques to increase the pool of donor livers for transplantation and the limitations of current priority policies.

    • Gonzalo Sapisochin
    •  & Jordi Bruix
  • Reviews |

    The mTOR pathway has a role in the development of renal disease, kidney transplant rejection and malignancies. Here, the authors discuss the mechanisms by which mTOR complexes drive the pathogenesis of these diseases as well as the therapeutic potential of mTOR inhibitors.

    • Daniel Fantus
    • , Natasha M. Rogers
    • , Florian Grahammer
    • , Tobias B. Huber
    •  & Angus W. Thomson
  • Reviews |

    Antibodies directed against non-HLA antigens such as angiotensin type 1 receptor, perlecan and collagen have been implicated in antibody-mediated rejection. Here, Elaine Reed and Qiuheng Zhang discuss the clinical relevance and pathogenesis of these non-HLA antibodies in renal, heart and lung transplantation.

    • Qiuheng Zhang
    •  & Elaine F. Reed
  • Reviews |

    Molecular phenotyping of renal biopsy samples from transplant recipients has the potential to improve diagnostic precision and understanding of disease processes. In this Review, Philip Halloran et al. describe their strategy to develop a system that enables the molecular assessment of transplant biopsy samples. They discuss the molecular phenotypes of rejection and injury, and how these studies have improved understanding of the processes that occur in renal transplants over time.

    • Philip F. Halloran
    • , Konrad S. Famulski
    •  & Jeff Reeve
  • Reviews |

    Graft necrosis resulting from ischaemia–reperfusion injury leads to the release of endogenous molecules — damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) — which trigger a sterile inflammatory reaction. The resulting immune response can impair transplant tolerance or result in acute or chronic graft rejection. In this Review, Braza et al. discuss the nature of DAMPs and their downstream signalling pathways, with a focus on Toll-like receptors. They outline various strategies to inhibit DAMP-induced inflammation with the aim of improving the outcomes of solid organ transplantation, and discuss the challenge of inhibiting the innate immune response within the graft without compromising the patient's response to pathogens.

    • Faouzi Braza
    • , Sophie Brouard
    • , Steve Chadban
    •  & Daniel R. Goldstein

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