Oncology

Definition

Oncology is the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. It includes medical oncology (the use of chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and other drugs to treat cancer), radiation oncology (the use of radiation therapy to treat cancer), and surgical oncology (the use of surgery and other procedures to treat cancer).

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Latest Research and Reviews

  • Reviews |

    The use of genetically engineered T cells in the treatment of cancer is reviewed, with particular focus on anti-CD19 chimaeric antigen receptor therapy, providing a summary of past progress and current status, and potential future directions.

    • Michel Sadelain
    • , Isabelle Rivière
    •  & Stanley Riddell
    Nature 545, 423–431
  • Research |

    In human cell lines with mutant KRAS and loss of LKB1, CPS1 expression correlates inversely with LKB1 expression; silencing CPS1 in these cells induces DNA damage and cell death as a result of pyrimidine depletion rather than ammonia toxicity.

    • Jiyeon Kim
    • , Zeping Hu
    • , Ling Cai
    • , Kailong Li
    • , Eunhee Choi
    • , Brandon Faubert
    • , Divya Bezwada
    • , Jaime Rodriguez-Canales
    • , Pamela Villalobos
    • , Yu-Fen Lin
    • , Min Ni
    • , Kenneth E. Huffman
    • , Luc Girard
    • , Lauren A. Byers
    • , Keziban Unsal-Kacmaz
    • , Christopher G. Peña
    • , John V. Heymach
    • , Els Wauters
    • , Johan Vansteenkiste
    • , Diego H. Castrillon
    • , Benjamin P. C. Chen
    • , Ignacio Wistuba
    • , Diether Lambrechts
    • , Jian Xu
    • , John D. Minna
    •  & Ralph J. DeBerardinis
  • Reviews |

    Clinical trials testing activators of tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor (TRAIL-R) signalling in cancer have not met expectations. This Review discusses new insights that might explain clinical failure, but also provide the basis for harnessing TRAIL-Rs for cancer therapy.

    • Silvia von Karstedt
    • , Antonella Montinaro
    •  & Henning Walczak
    Nature Reviews Cancer 17, 352–366
  • Research | | open

    The role of long noncoding RNAs in regulating T-cell differentiation within the tumour microenvironment is unclear. Here the authors identify a lncRNA that, through direct interactions with EGFR, promotes T-regulatory cell differentiation within the microenvironment of hepatocellular carcinoma, thus promoting tumour growth via immune suppression.

    • Runqiu Jiang
    • , Junwei Tang
    • , Yun Chen
    • , Lei Deng
    • , Jie Ji
    • , Yu Xie
    • , Ke Wang
    • , Wei Jia
    • , Wen-Ming Chu
    •  & Beicheng Sun
  • Reviews | | open

    A better understanding of the earliest stages of human cancer formation can enable future improvements in early detection, diagnosis and treatment. In this review, the authors summarize the methods enabling de novo tumorigenesis protocols to be applied to human cells and the insights derived from them to date, as well as the exciting and relevant technical developments anticipated to extend even further the utility of these strategies.

    • Sneha Balani
    • , Long V. Nguyen
    •  & Connie J. Eaves
  • Reviews |

    3D organoids are valuable tools for increasing understanding of disease biology. In this Review, the authors describe how successful application of organoids into urological cancer research can further our understanding of these diseases and provide preclinical cancer models to aid precision medicine.

    • Shangqian Wang
    • , Dong Gao
    •  & Yu Chen

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