Nucleosomes

Nucleosomes are the repeating unit of chromatin, and consist of approximately 147 base pairs of DNA wrapped around eight histone protein cores to allow chromosomal DNA to be packaged into a small volume. Nucleosomes are the 'beads' in the 'bead-on-a-string' depiction of chromatin.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research | | open

    Kinetochore function depends on H4K20 monomethylation in centromeric nucleosomes but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, the authors provide evidence that the centromere-specific nucleosome subunit CENP-A facilitates H4K20 methylation by enabling a conformational change of the H4 N-terminal tail.

    • Yasuhiro Arimura
    • , Hiroaki Tachiwana
    • , Hiroki Takagi
    • , Tetsuya Hori
    • , Hiroshi Kimura
    • , Tatsuo Fukagawa
    •  & Hitoshi Kurumizaka
  • Reviews |

    Chromatin accessibility comprises the positions, compaction and dynamics of nucleosomes, as well as the occupancy of DNA by other proteins such as transcription factors. In this Review, the authors discuss diverse methods for characterizing chromatin accessibility, how accessibility is determined and remodelled in cells and the regulatory roles of accessibility in gene expression and development.

    • Sandy L. Klemm
    • , Zohar Shipony
    •  & William J. Greenleaf
  • Research | | open

    Eukaryotic transcription requires passage of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) through chromatin, which is impaired by nucleosomes. Here the authors report the cryo-EM structure of transcribing Pol II engaged with a downstream nucleosome core particle at an overall resolution of 4.4 Å, providing insights into the mechanism of chromatin transcription.

    • Lucas Farnung
    • , Seychelle M. Vos
    •  & Patrick Cramer
  • Research | | open

    Nucleosomes compact the genome and regulate access to specific DNA sequences. Here the authors employ single-molecule FRET studies to characterize nucleosome dynamics at different salt concentrations and dissect nucleosome disassembly into elementary steps.

    • Alexander Gansen
    • , Suren Felekyan
    • , Ralf Kühnemuth
    • , Kathrin Lehmann
    • , Katalin Tóth
    • , Claus A. M. Seidel
    •  & Jörg Langowski
  • Research | | open

    There had been an enduring discrepancy between theoretical and observed measurement of the DNA linking number (∆Lk) constrained by nucleosomes. Here the authors provide measurements of the ∆Lk constrained by individual nucleosomes in native chromatin that reconcile this discrepancy.

    • Joana Segura
    • , Ricky S. Joshi
    • , Ofelia Díaz-Ingelmo
    • , Antonio Valdés
    • , Silvia Dyson
    • , Belén Martínez-García
    •  & Joaquim Roca

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