Neuroscience

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Spatial maps in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) have been proposed to map abstract conceptual knowledge. Rather than grounding abstract knowledge in a spatial map, the authors propose a general-purpose clustering algorithm that explains how both spatial (including place and grid cells) and higher-dimensional conceptual representations arise during learning.

    • Robert M. Mok
    •  & Bradley C. Love
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The eye shows protective responses to noxious stimuli including cold. Here, the authors show that TRPV1, found co-expressed on TRPM8 + fibres in the cornea, is necessary for cold nociception in the eye.

    • Fengxian Li
    • , Weishan Yang
    • , Haowu Jiang
    • , Changxiong Guo
    • , Andrew J. W. Huang
    • , Hongzhen Hu
    •  & Qin Liu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Sensory stimuli usually arrive simultaneously but the neural-circuit mechanisms that combine multiple streams of sensory information are incompletely understood. The authors here show that visual-auditory pairing drives plasticity in multi-modal neuron networks within the mouse visual cortex.

    • Thomas Knöpfel
    • , Yann Sweeney
    • , Carola I. Radulescu
    • , Nawal Zabouri
    • , Nazanin Doostdar
    • , Claudia Clopath
    •  & Samuel J. Barnes
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Attention is known to enhance relevant information in our environment, yet its underlying neural computations remain unclear. Here, the authors provide evidence that the degree to which a neural population can normalize itself results in greater potential for attentional benefits.

    • Ilona M. Bloem
    •  & Sam Ling
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Gut microbiota alterations, including enrichment of flagellated bacteria, are associated with metabolic syndrome and chronic inflammatory diseases. Here, Tran et al. show, in mice, that elicitation of mucosal anti-flagellin antibodies protects against experimental colitis and ameliorates diet-induced obesity.

    • Hao Q. Tran
    • , Ruth E. Ley
    • , Andrew T. Gewirtz
    •  & Benoit Chassaing
  • Article
    | Open Access

    People can easily extract task-relevant gist features from visual scenes and hold those features in working memory. Here, the authors show that this gist information is gradually abstracted from posterior to anterior regions of the brain and stably represented at the anterior region.

    • Byung-Il Oh
    • , Yee-Joon Kim
    •  & Min-Suk Kang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Spinal pain is a major clinical problem. Here the authors show that osteoclasts create porous area of endplates of the vertebrae and sensory innervation of porous endplates by Netrin-1 release from osteoclasts mediates PGE2-induced spinal hypersensitivity in mice.

    • Shuangfei Ni
    • , Zemin Ling
    • , Xiao Wang
    • , Yong Cao
    • , Tianding Wu
    • , Ruoxian Deng
    • , Janet L. Crane
    • , Richard Skolask
    • , Shadpour Demehril
    • , Gehua Zhen
    • , Amit Jain
    • , Panfeng Wu
    • , Dayu Pan
    • , Bo Hu
    • , Xiao Lyu
    • , Yusheng Li
    • , Hao Chen
    • , Huabin Qi
    • , Yun Guan
    • , Xinzhong Dong
    • , Mei Wan
    • , Xuenong Zou
    • , Hongbin Lu
    • , Jianzhong Hu
    •  & Xu Cao
  • Article
    | Open Access

    There are many examples of cell populations exhibiting density-dependent collective oscillatory behaviour. Here, the authors show that sustained collective oscillations emerge when cells anticipate variation in signal and attempt to amplify it, a property that can be linked to adaptation.

    • Shou-Wen Wang
    •  & Lei-Han Tang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The exact molecular mechanisms driving FUS-mediated toxicity remain unclear. Here, the authors demonstrate that muscleblind (Mbl) is a novel modifier of FUS-associated ALS, with knockdown of endogenous Mbl suppressing neuromuscular junction defects and motor dysfunctions associated with FUS expression in Drosophila, as well as restoring reduced SMN protein levels in mammalian neuronal and human iPSC-derived motor neurons.

    • Ian Casci
    • , Karthik Krishnamurthy
    • , Sukhleen Kour
    • , Vadreenath Tripathy
    • , Nandini Ramesh
    • , Eric N. Anderson
    • , Lara Marrone
    • , Rogan A. Grant
    • , Stacie Oliver
    • , Lauren Gochenaur
    • , Krishani Patel
    • , Jared Sterneckert
    • , Amanda M. Gleixner
    • , Christopher J. Donnelly
    • , Marc-David Ruepp
    • , Antonella M. Sini
    • , Emanuela Zuccaro
    • , Maria Pennuto
    • , Piera Pasinelli
    •  & Udai Bhan Pandey
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Activity-dependent pathways are important for synapse function but the molecular links to synapse function are not clear. The authors show that the Ca2+ channel subunit α2δ-3 provides an extracellular scaffold for autocrine BMP signalling at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction.

    • Kendall M. Hoover
    • , Scott J. Gratz
    • , Nova Qi
    • , Kelsey A. Herrmann
    • , Yizhou Liu
    • , Jahci J. Perry-Richardson
    • , Pamela J. Vanderzalm
    • , Kate M. O’Connor-Giles
    •  & Heather T. Broihier
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The visual word form area (VWFA) is a brain region associated with written language, but it has also been linked to visuospatial attention. Here, the authors reveal distinct structural and functional circuits linking VWFA with language and attention networks, and demonstrate that these circuits separately predict language and attention abilities.

    • Lang Chen
    • , Demian Wassermann
    • , Daniel A. Abrams
    • , John Kochalka
    • , Guillermo Gallardo-Diez
    •  & Vinod Menon
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Olfactory bulb neurogenesis raises the question of how persistent olfactory memories are retained while remaining flexible to encode new memories. Here, the authors show that new neurons can only support a single odor memory within their critical period of integration into the circuit.

    • Jérémy Forest
    • , Mélissa Moreno
    • , Matthias Cavelius
    • , Laura Chalençon
    • , Anne Ziessel
    • , Joëlle Sacquet
    • , Marion Richard
    • , Anne Didier
    •  & Nathalie Mandairon
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Flying insects position their antennae by integrating multisensory inputs across different timescales. This study describes an underlying hierarchical neural circuit that maintains antennal position in a fast and robust manner, whilst retaining flexibility to incorporate slower feedback to modulate position.

    • Dinesh Natesan
    • , Nitesh Saxena
    • , Örjan Ekeberg
    •  & Sanjay P. Sane
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are dimeric G-protein–coupled receptors that operate at neural synapses. Here authors use FRET assays in live cells to monitor mGluR2/7’s activation and reveal how heterodimerization can alter the glutamate response of an mGluR.

    • Chris H. Habrian
    • , Joshua Levitz
    • , Vojtech Vyklicky
    • , Zhu Fu
    • , Adam Hoagland
    • , Isabelle McCort-Tranchepain
    • , Francine Acher
    •  & Ehud Y. Isacoff
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The cerebellum is critical in sensory-motor control and is structurally diverse across vertebrates. Here, the authors investigate the evolutionary relationship between locomotory mode and cerebellum architecture across squamates by integrating study of gene expression, cell distribution, and 3D morphology.

    • Simone Macrì
    • , Yoland Savriama
    • , Imran Khan
    •  & Nicolas Di-Poï
  • Article
    | Open Access

    People can experience a wide variety of emotions, and how the brain represents these varying affective states is a matter of debate. Here the authors show that coding mechanisms of emotions in right temporo-parietal cortex resemble those of low-level stimulus features in primary sensory regions.

    • Giada Lettieri
    • , Giacomo Handjaras
    • , Emiliano Ricciardi
    • , Andrea Leo
    • , Paolo Papale
    • , Monica Betta
    • , Pietro Pietrini
    •  & Luca Cecchetti
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Mutations in LRRK2 and GBA1, which encodes glucocerebrosidase (GCase), are associated with Parkinson’s disease. Here the authors show that LRRK2 is a negative regulator of lysosomal GCase activity, using dopaminergic neurons derived from iPSCs from PD patients with LRRK2 mutations.

    • Daniel Ysselstein
    • , Maria Nguyen
    • , Tiffany J. Young
    • , Alex Severino
    • , Michael Schwake
    • , Kalpana Merchant
    •  & Dimitri Krainc
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Siblings of those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have increased likelihood of ASD or related subclinical traits. Here, studying 253 ASD families, D’Abate et al. test the predictive value of genomic copy number variation involving ASD-associated loci, with confirmation in a second cohort.

    • L. D’Abate
    • , S. Walker
    • , R. K. C. Yuen
    • , K. Tammimies
    • , J. A. Buchanan
    • , R. W. Davies
    • , B. Thiruvahindrapuram
    • , J. Wei
    • , J. Brian
    • , S. E. Bryson
    • , K. Dobkins
    • , J. Howe
    • , R. Landa
    • , J. Leef
    • , D. Messinger
    • , S. Ozonoff
    • , I. M. Smith
    • , W. L. Stone
    • , Z. E. Warren
    • , G. Young
    • , L. Zwaigenbaum
    •  & S. W. Scherer
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The fusiform face area and parahippocampal place area respond to face and scene stimuli respectively. Here, the authors show using fMRI that these brain areas are also preferentially activated by eye movements associated with looking at faces and scenes even when no images are shown.

    • Lihui Wang
    • , Florian Baumgartner
    • , Falko R. Kaule
    • , Michael Hanke
    •  & Stefan Pollmann
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Understanding mechanisms of cerebral oxygen regulation is critical for healthy brain function. Here the authors show that respiration is a key modulator of cerebral oxygenation, which will be helpful in better resolving neurally-generated functional brain imaging signals, such as BOLD fMRI.

    • Qingguang Zhang
    • , Morgane Roche
    • , Kyle W. Gheres
    • , Emmanuelle Chaigneau
    • , Ravi T. Kedarasetti
    • , William D. Haselden
    • , Serge Charpak
    •  & Patrick J. Drew
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) are characterized by the pathological accumulation of α-synuclein. Here the authors employ fluorescent probes, electron microscopy and NMR spectroscopy to study the properties of α-synuclein aggregates that were amplified from patient brain extracts and observe a greater structural diversity among PD patients compared to MSA patients.

    • Timo Strohäker
    • , Byung Chul Jung
    • , Shu-Hao Liou
    • , Claudio O. Fernandez
    • , Dietmar Riedel
    • , Stefan Becker
    • , Glenda M. Halliday
    • , Marina Bennati
    • , Woojin S. Kim
    • , Seung-Jae Lee
    •  & Markus Zweckstetter
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Many approaches exist to process data from individual imaging modalities, but integrating them is challenging. The authors develop an automated resource that enables co-registered network- and tract-level analysis of macroscopic in-vivo imaging and microscopic imaging of cleared tissue.

    • Maged Goubran
    • , Christoph Leuze
    • , Brian Hsueh
    • , Markus Aswendt
    • , Li Ye
    • , Qiyuan Tian
    • , Michelle Y. Cheng
    • , Ailey Crow
    • , Gary K. Steinberg
    • , Jennifer A. McNab
    • , Karl Deisseroth
    •  & Michael Zeineh
  • Article
    | Open Access

    AgRP neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARH) are involved in regulating hunger and energy balance. Here the authors show that knockout of the DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a in AgRP neurons of the ARH leads to a reduction in voluntary exercise along with numerous epigenetic and gene expression changes in ARH neurons.

    • Harry MacKay
    • , C. Anthony Scott
    • , Jack D. Duryea
    • , Maria S. Baker
    • , Eleonora Laritsky
    • , Amanda E. Elson
    • , Theodore Garland Jr.
    • , Marta L. Fiorotto
    • , Rui Chen
    • , Yumei Li
    • , Cristian Coarfa
    • , Richard B. Simerly
    •  & Robert A. Waterland
  • Perspective
    | Open Access

    Recent research in motor neuroscience has focused on optimal feedback control of single, simple tasks while robotics and AI are making progress towards flexible movement control in complex environments employing hierarchical control strategies. Here, the authors argue for a return to hierarchical models of motor control in neuroscience.

    • Josh Merel
    • , Matthew Botvinick
    •  & Greg Wayne
  • Article
    | Open Access

    One of the underlying causes of aging is the accumulation of senescent cells, but their turnover rates and dynamics during ageing are unknown. Here the authors measure and model senescent cell production and removal and explore implications for mortality.

    • Omer Karin
    • , Amit Agrawal
    • , Ziv Porat
    • , Valery Krizhanovsky
    •  & Uri Alon
  • Article
    | Open Access

    There is growing evidence that autophagy might serve specialized functions in neurons besides its role in protein homeostasis. In this study, authors demonstrate that axonal retrograde transport of BDNF/TrkB in neuronal amphisomes is involved in plasticity-relevant local signaling at presynaptic boutons and that SIPA1L2, a member of the SIPA1L family of neuronal RapGAPs, associates via LC3b to TrkB-containing amphisomes to regulate its motility and signaling at the axon terminals

    • Maria Andres-Alonso
    • , Mohamed Raafet Ammar
    • , Ioana Butnaru
    • , Guilherme M. Gomes
    • , Gustavo Acuña Sanhueza
    • , Rajeev Raman
    • , PingAn Yuanxiang
    • , Maximilian Borgmeyer
    • , Jeffrey Lopez-Rojas
    • , Syed Ahsan Raza
    • , Nicola Brice
    • , Torben J. Hausrat
    • , Tamar Macharadze
    • , Silvia Diaz-Gonzalez
    • , Mark Carlton
    • , Antonio Virgilio Failla
    • , Oliver Stork
    • , Michaela Schweizer
    • , Eckart D. Gundelfinger
    • , Matthias Kneussel
    • , Christina Spilker
    • , Anna Karpova
    •  & Michael R. Kreutz
  • Article
    | Open Access

    It remains unclear why quiescent neural stem cells (qNSCs) in the subventricular zone of the mouse brain have enlarged lysosomes. Here, authors demonstrate that qNSCs exhibit higher lysosomal activity and degrade activated EGF receptor by endolysosomal degradation more rapidly than proliferating NSCs, which prevents the NSC exit from quiescence.

    • Taeko Kobayashi
    • , Wenhui Piao
    • , Toshiya Takamura
    • , Hiroshi Kori
    • , Hitoshi Miyachi
    • , Satsuki Kitano
    • , Yumiko Iwamoto
    • , Mayumi Yamada
    • , Itaru Imayoshi
    • , Seiji Shioda
    • , Andrea Ballabio
    •  & Ryoichiro Kageyama
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Mechanisms of transcription of expanded G4C2 repeats in C9ORF72, associated with ALS/FTD, are not fully understood. Here authors use both Drosophila and C9ORF72 iPSC-derived neurons and identify AFF2/FMR2 as a regulator of poly(GR) toxicity by regulating expression of the expanded G4C2 repeats.

    • Yeliz Yuva-Aydemir
    • , Sandra Almeida
    • , Gopinath Krishnan
    • , Tania F. Gendron
    •  & Fen-Biao Gao
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Zebrafish larvae can binocularly detect prey objects in order to strike but lack ipsilateral retinotectal fibers for binocular superposition of visual information. Here the authors describe commissural intertectal neurons and show that they are required for the initiation of capture strikes.

    • Christoph Gebhardt
    • , Thomas O. Auer
    • , Pedro M. Henriques
    • , Gokul Rajan
    • , Karine Duroure
    • , Isaac H. Bianco
    •  & Filippo Del Bene
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Electrical stimulation of the brain can have variable effects, perhaps because of individual differences in brain structure which produce differences in the electric fields. Here, the authors show that using functional and structural brain imaging along with electric field modeling can predict the effectiveness of stimulation.

    • Florian H. Kasten
    • , Katharina Duecker
    • , Marike C. Maack
    • , Arnd Meiser
    •  & Christoph S. Herrmann
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes, which negatively regulate mTORC1 signalling. Here the authors selectively delete Tsc1 from dopamine neurons in mice and find impairments in striatal dopamine release that are sufficient to reduce cognitive flexibility.

    • Polina Kosillo
    • , Natalie M. Doig
    • , Kamran M. Ahmed
    • , Alexander H.C.W. Agopyan-Miu
    • , Corinna D. Wong
    • , Lisa Conyers
    • , Sarah Threlfell
    • , Peter J. Magill
    •  & Helen S. Bateup
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Because our immediate observations are often ambiguous, we must use the context (prior beliefs) to guide inference, but the context may also be uncertain. Here, the authors show that humans can accurately estimate the reliability of the context and combine it with sensory uncertainty to form their decisions and estimate confidence.

    • Philipp Schustek
    • , Alexandre Hyafil
    •  & Rubén Moreno-Bote
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Machine learning algorithms can be trained to estimate age from brain structural MRI. Here, the authors introduce a new deep-learning-based age prediction approach, and then carry out a GWAS of the difference between predicted and chronological age, revealing two associated variants.

    • B. A. Jonsson
    • , G. Bjornsdottir
    • , T. E. Thorgeirsson
    • , L. M. Ellingsen
    • , G. Bragi Walters
    • , D. F. Gudbjartsson
    • , H. Stefansson
    • , K. Stefansson
    •  & M. O. Ulfarsson
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Memories linking environmental cues to alcohol reward are involved in the development and maintenance of heavy drinking. Here, the authors show that a single dose of ketamine, given after retrieval of alcohol-reward memories, disrupts the reconsolidation of these memories and reduces drinking in humans.

    • Ravi K. Das
    • , Grace Gale
    • , Katie Walsh
    • , Vanessa E. Hennessy
    • , Georges Iskandar
    • , Luke A. Mordecai
    • , Brigitta Brandner
    • , Merel Kindt
    • , H. Valerie Curran
    •  & Sunjeev K. Kamboj
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Eye‐tracking is a valuable tool in cognitive science for measuring how attention is directed during visual scene exploration. Here, the authors introduce a new, touchscreen-based method that accomplishes the same goal via tracking finger movements.

    • Guillaume Lio
    • , Roberta Fadda
    • , Giuseppe Doneddu
    • , Jean‐René Duhamel
    •  & Angela Sirigu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    In vivo laser ablation of dendrites in single L2/3 pyramidal neurons reveals that neuronal orientation tuning in V1 is robust to loss of dendritic input. Orientation tuning functions remain unchanged following apical dendrite ablation and change only slightly upon loss of two primary basal dendrites.

    • Jiyoung Park
    • , Athanasia Papoutsi
    • , Ryan T. Ash
    • , Miguel A. Marin
    • , Panayiota Poirazi
    •  & Stelios M. Smirnakis
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Interference from overlapping memories can cause forgetting. Here, the authors show using fMRI decoding approaches that spontaneous reactivation of older memories during new encoding leads to integration, and less interference, between overlapping items.

    • Avi J. H. Chanales
    • , Nicole M. Dudukovic
    • , Franziska R. Richter
    •  & Brice A. Kuhl
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) is a regulator of lipid homeostasis in several tissues, however, its role in intestinal lipid metabolism was not yet known. Here the authors study intestine specific HDAC3 knock out mice and report that these animals have increased fatty acid oxidation and undergo remodeling of the intestinal epithelial cell lipidome.

    • Mercedes Dávalos-Salas
    • , Magdalene K. Montgomery
    • , Camilla M. Reehorst
    • , Rebecca Nightingale
    • , Irvin Ng
    • , Holly Anderton
    • , Sheren Al-Obaidi
    • , Analia Lesmana
    • , Cameron M. Scott
    • , Paul Ioannidis
    • , Hina Kalra
    • , Shivakumar Keerthikumar
    • , Lars Tögel
    • , Angela Rigopoulos
    • , Sylvia J. Gong
    • , David S. Williams
    • , Prusoth Yoganantharaja
    • , Kim Bell-Anderson
    • , Suresh Mathivanan
    • , Yann Gibert
    • , Scott Hiebert
    • , Andrew M. Scott
    • , Matthew J. Watt
    •  & John M. Mariadason
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Memory consolidation theory suggests that memory is maintained at a stable strength after formation. The authors show that memory is dynamically maintained at an intermediate level allowing a bidirectional regulation which is mediated by a balance between activated Rac1 and expressed α2-chimaerin.

    • Li Lv
    • , Yunlong Liu
    • , Jianxin Xie
    • , Yan Wu
    • , Jianjian Zhao
    • , Qian Li
    •  & Yi Zhong
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Slow gamma oscillations are associated with memory and have been reported to be disrupted in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Here the authors show that optogenetic stimulation of medial septum parvalbumin neurons at 40 Hz rescues memory retrieval in the J20 mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease.

    • Guillaume Etter
    • , Suzanne van der Veldt
    • , Frédéric Manseau
    • , Iman Zarrinkoub
    • , Emilie Trillaud-Doppia
    •  & Sylvain Williams
  • Article
    | Open Access

    VIP interneurons have been shown to disinhibit pyramidal neurons by inhibiting other interneuron types. Here, the authors report that ChAT-VIP subtype of interneurons directly excite pyramidal neurons in multiple layers via fast cholinergic neurotransmission.

    • Joshua Obermayer
    • , Antonio Luchicchi
    • , Tim S. Heistek
    • , Sybren F. de Kloet
    • , Huub Terra
    • , Bastiaan Bruinsma
    • , Ouissame Mnie-Filali
    • , Christian Kortleven
    • , Anna A. Galakhova
    • , Ayoub J. Khalil
    • , Tim Kroon
    • , Allert J. Jonker
    • , Roel de Haan
    • , Wilma D. J. van den Berg
    • , Natalia A. Goriounova
    • , Christiaan P. J. de Kock
    • , Tommy Pattij
    •  & Huibert D. Mansvelder
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Mitochondrial calcium signaling plays an important role in neuronal bioenergetics yet its regulation by brain activity in vivo is not understood. Here, the authors show that mitochondrial and cytosolic calcium transients are dynamically coupled as a function of brain activity.

    • Yuan Lin
    • , Lin-Lin Li
    • , Wei Nie
    • , Xiaolei Liu
    • , Avital Adler
    • , Chi Xiao
    • , Fujian Lu
    • , Liping Wang
    • , Hua Han
    • , Xianhua Wang
    • , Wen-Biao Gan
    •  & Heping Cheng
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The brain mechanisms underlying cooperation within groups, while balancing individual and collective interests, are poorly understood. Here, the authors identify the neurocomputations engaged in social dilemmas requiring strategic decisions during repeated social interactions in groups.

    • Seongmin A. Park
    • , Mariateresa Sestito
    • , Erie D. Boorman
    •  & Jean-Claude Dreher
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The neural mechanisms for concurrently attending to multiple features in the visual stimuli are not well understood. Here, the authors show that the neural representations for two overlapping stimulus features alternate with each other at a ~4 Hz rhythm that was also observed in fluctuations in the task performance.

    • Ce Mo
    • , Junshi Lu
    • , Bichan Wu
    • , Jianrong Jia
    • , Huan Luo
    •  & Fang Fang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Detailed characterization of large-scale hemodynamic responses linked to specific neural activity remains to be elucidated at the single-vessel level across the subcentimeter scale hippocampal vasculature in vivo. Here, authors use a novel multi-modal fMRI platform to characterize distinct spatiotemporal patterns of hippocampal hemodynamic responses that were correlated to the optogenetically evoked Ca2+ events and to further demonstrate the significantly reduced neurovascular coupling efficiency upon spreading depression-like Ca2+ events.

    • Xuming Chen
    • , Filip Sobczak
    • , Yi Chen
    • , Yuanyuan Jiang
    • , Chunqi Qian
    • , Zuneng Lu
    • , Cenk Ayata
    • , Nikos K. Logothetis
    •  & Xin Yu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The mechanisms regulating the turnover of the AMPARs in the synapse, which is critically important to sustain basic synaptic activity, remains unclear. In this study, authors used single-molecule imaging techniques to demonstrate that AMPAR tetramers are not stable entities and readily fall apart to dimers and monomers that could reform to tetramers at the synapse, and that rapidly diffusing monomers in the plasma membrane are primarily responsible for the AMPAR turnover in the synapse.

    • Jyoji Morise
    • , Kenichi G. N. Suzuki
    • , Ayaka Kitagawa
    • , Yoshihiko Wakazono
    • , Kogo Takamiya
    • , Taka A. Tsunoyama
    • , Yuri L. Nemoto
    • , Hiromu Takematsu
    • , Akihiro Kusumi
    •  & Shogo Oka
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by neurodegeneration associated with loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons and deposition of Lewy bodies. Here, Wang et al. use co-expression network analysis to pinpoint disease pathways and propose reduced expression of STMN2 as a cause of presynaptic function loss in PD.

    • Qian Wang
    • , Yuanxi Zhang
    • , Minghui Wang
    • , Won-Min Song
    • , Qi Shen
    • , Andrew McKenzie
    • , Insup Choi
    • , Xianxiao Zhou
    • , Ping-Yue Pan
    • , Zhenyu Yue
    •  & Bin Zhang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    T cells from narcolepsy patients were recently reported to recognize hypocretin, a wakefulness-promoting neurohormone, suggesting autoimmune origin of the disease. Here the authors show that hypocretin-specific T cells expand both in healthy controls and in narcolepsy patients, and identify preliminary features that may distinguish them.

    • Wei Jiang
    • , James R. Birtley
    • , Shu-Chen Hung
    • , Weiqi Wang
    • , Shin-Heng Chiou
    • , Claudia Macaubas
    • , Birgitte Kornum
    • , Lu Tian
    • , Huang Huang
    • , Lital Adler
    • , Grant Weaver
    • , Liying Lu
    • , Alexandra Ilstad-Minnihan
    • , Sriram Somasundaram
    • , Sashi Ayyangar
    • , Mark M. Davis
    • , Lawrence J. Stern
    •  & Elizabeth D. Mellins