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Corticospinal cells of the motor cortex act as a direct link between the cortex and movement-generating circuits within the spinal cord. The authors demonstrate that the relationship between activity of these cells and movement changes with time and learning, indicating a flexible cortical output to drive movements.
A brain–spine interface that uses decoded neural activity from motor cortex delivered to an electrical stimulation system in the spine was used to restore locomotor function in a monkey whose leg was paralyzed by spinal injury.