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Motor learning induces structural and functional reorganization in upper layers of motor cortex. Here the authors show that neuronal ensembles in the output layer 5b exhibit temporal dynamics during skilled learning that progressively becomes well-aligned to movement in a dopamine dependent manner.
A brain–spine interface that uses decoded neural activity from motor cortex delivered to an electrical stimulation system in the spine was used to restore locomotor function in a monkey whose leg was paralyzed by spinal injury.
A new study shows that the transient manipulation of neural activity can sometimes have 'off-target' effects, making it challenging to determine the specific neural circuit that generates a particular behaviour.