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The microbiota is a collective term for the micro-organisms that live in or on the human body. Specific clusters of microbiota are found on the skin or in the gastrointestinal tract, mouth, vagina and eyes.
γδ T cells are found mainly in epithelial tissues, where they have crucial roles in tissue homeostasis and repair. Here, the authors describe how γδ T cells are activated and regulated in epithelial tissues, such as the skin and intestine, to mediate host microbial tolerance and provide protection against infection.
A growing body of evidence supports the role of the gut microbiota in regulating blood pressure. In their Review, Marques and co-workers describe how the gut microbiota and its metabolites act on downstream cellular targets to influence the pathogenesis of hypertension. Novel strategies to modify the gut microbiota might present a new therapeutic avenue to improve health and prevent disease.
Recent microbiome genome-wide association studies have identified numerous associations between human genetic variants and the gut microbiome. Here, the authors review how genetic variation in the host can alter the composition of the gut microbiome towards a disease state, with a focus on disorders of immunity and metabolism.
A growing body of evidence supports a key role for T helper type 17 (TH17) cells in the development of renal damage. This Review discusses the identification, regulation, and function of TH17 cells and their associated pathways in immune-mediated kidney diseases, with particular focus on the mechanisms underlying renal tissue injury.
A recent study describes a new molecular mechanism used by the gut microbiota to maintain a state of homeostasis in the intestinal lumen, and highlights the importance of PPARγ signalling in this complex regulation.