Microbiology

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, the authors characterize immunological and microbiome alterations in a cohort of obese asthmatics, finding that disease severity negatively correlates with fecal abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila, and show in a mouse model that administration of A. muciniphila reduces airway hyper-reactivity and airway inflammation.

    • David Michalovich
    • , Noelia Rodriguez-Perez
    • , Sylwia Smolinska
    • , Michal Pirozynski
    • , David Mayhew
    • , Sorif Uddin
    • , Stephanie Van Horn
    • , Milena Sokolowska
    • , Can Altunbulakli
    • , Andrzej Eljaszewicz
    • , Benoit Pugin
    • , Weronika Barcik
    • , Magdalena Kurnik-Lucka
    • , Ken A. Saunders
    • , Karen D. Simpson
    • , Peter Schmid-Grendelmeier
    • , Ruth Ferstl
    • , Remo Frei
    • , Noriane Sievi
    • , Malcolm Kohler
    • , Pawel Gajdanowicz
    • , Katrine B. Graversen
    • , Katrine Lindholm Bøgh
    • , Marek Jutel
    • , James R. Brown
    • , Cezmi A. Akdis
    • , Edith M. Hessel
    •  & Liam O’Mahony
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A Zika virus vaccine should protect the fetus during pregnancy. Here, using a live-attenuated Zika vaccine, the authors show that a higher neutralizing antibody titer is required to protect from in utero transmission than to protect non-pregnant mice and that a single maternal immunization protects the fetus from infection and disease.

    • Chao Shan
    • , Xuping Xie
    • , Huanle Luo
    • , Antonio E. Muruato
    • , Yang Liu
    • , Maki Wakamiya
    • , Jun-Ho La
    • , Jin Mo Chung
    • , Scott C. Weaver
    • , Tian Wang
    •  & Pei-Yong Shi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Phagocytosis is a typically eukaryotic feature that could be behind the origin of eukaryotic cells. Here, the authors describe a bacterium that can engulf other bacteria and small eukaryotic cells through a phagocytosis-like mechanism.

    • Takashi Shiratori
    • , Shigekatsu Suzuki
    • , Yukako Kakizawa
    •  & Ken-ichiro Ishida
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Lactobacillus associates with vaginal protection from HIV-1 infection. Here, the authors show that lactobacilli extracellular vesicles contain bacterial proteins and metabolites that inhibit HIV-1 infection in T cells and in human cervico-vaginal and tonsillar tissues ex vivo via altering viral Env proteins.

    • Rogers A. Ñahui Palomino
    • , Christophe Vanpouille
    • , Luca Laghi
    • , Carola Parolin
    • , Kamran Melikov
    • , Peter Backlund
    • , Beatrice Vitali
    •  & Leonid Margolis
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Earth’s carbon cycle and oceanic magnesium cycle are controlled by processes such as weathering, volcanism and precipitation of carbonates, such as dolomite. Here, the authors contradict the view that modern dolomite formation is rare and suggest instead that dolomite accounts for ~40–60% of the global oceanic Mg output in the last 20 Ma.

    • Netta Shalev
    • , Tomaso R. R. Bontognali
    • , C. Geoffrey Wheat
    •  & Derek Vance
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Gut microbiota alterations, including enrichment of flagellated bacteria, are associated with metabolic syndrome and chronic inflammatory diseases. Here, Tran et al. show, in mice, that elicitation of mucosal anti-flagellin antibodies protects against experimental colitis and ameliorates diet-induced obesity.

    • Hao Q. Tran
    • , Ruth E. Ley
    • , Andrew T. Gewirtz
    •  & Benoit Chassaing
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Plasmodium growth is adapted to the reproductive cycle of mosquitoes, but underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, Lampe et al. show that the blood-meal induced miR-276 balances the termination of the mosquito amino acid catabolism and egg development, providing nutrients for Plasmodium sporozoite development.

    • Lena Lampe
    • , Marius Jentzsch
    • , Sylwia Kierszniowska
    •  & Elena A. Levashina
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The contribution of symbiotic dinitrogen fixation to the forest carbon sink could change throughout forest succession. Here the authors model nitrogen cycling and light competition between trees based on data from Panamanian forest plots, showing that fixation contributes substantially to the carbon sink in early successional stages.

    • Jennifer H. Levy-Varon
    • , Sarah A. Batterman
    • , David Medvigy
    • , Xiangtao Xu
    • , Jefferson S. Hall
    • , Michiel van Breugel
    •  & Lars O. Hedin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, Bhattacharya et al. chemically mutagenize Leishmania and identify genes associated with resistance to miltefosine and paromomycin by next generation sequencing. The study shows that a protein kinase (CDPK1) can mediate resistance to paromomycin by affecting translation.

    • Arijit Bhattacharya
    • , Philippe Leprohon
    • , Sophia Bigot
    • , Prasad Kottayil Padmanabhan
    • , Angana Mukherjee
    • , Gaétan Roy
    • , Hélène Gingras
    • , Anais Mestdagh
    • , Barbara Papadopoulou
    •  & Marc Ouellette
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, Nelson et al. use amplicon next-generation sequencing of two P. falciparum polymorphic gene regions to investigate the genetic similarity of parasite populations across time and space in a pediatric cohort in Kenya. They identify both micro- and macro-scale structuring of malaria parasites in this high-transmission setting, which could inform future intervention strategies.

    • Cody S. Nelson
    • , Kelsey M. Sumner
    • , Elizabeth Freedman
    • , Joseph W. Saelens
    • , Andrew A. Obala
    • , Judith N. Mangeni
    • , Steve M. Taylor
    •  & Wendy P. O’Meara
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The HLA-A*68:01 allele has been associated with severe influenza disease during the 2009 influenza pandemic. Here, the authors analyze influenza nucleoprotein specific HLA-A*68:01-restricted CD8+ T cells from human donors and show immunodominance of these cells in approximately 35% of HLA-A*68:01-expressing donors.

    • C. E. van de Sandt
    • , E. B. Clemens
    • , E. J. Grant
    • , L. C. Rowntree
    • , S. Sant
    • , H. Halim
    • , J. Crowe
    • , A. C. Cheng
    • , T. C. Kotsimbos
    • , M. Richards
    • , A. Miller
    • , S. Y. C. Tong
    • , J. Rossjohn
    • , T. H. O. Nguyen
    • , S. Gras
    • , W. Chen
    •  & K. Kedzierska
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Class 1 CRISPR systems are not as developed for genome editing as Class 2 systems are. Here the authors show that Cas3 can be used to generate functional knockouts and knock-ins, as well as Cas3-mediated exon-skipping in DMD cells.

    • Hiroyuki Morisaka
    • , Kazuto Yoshimi
    • , Yuya Okuzaki
    • , Peter Gee
    • , Yayoi Kunihiro
    • , Ekasit Sonpho
    • , Huaigeng Xu
    • , Noriko Sasakawa
    • , Yuki Naito
    • , Shinichiro Nakada
    • , Takashi Yamamoto
    • , Shigetoshi Sano
    • , Akitsu Hotta
    • , Junji Takeda
    •  & Tomoji Mashimo
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Photosynthesis generates reactive oxygen species that can damage cells. Here, the authors show that unicellular predators of photosynthetic prey have shared responses to photosynthetic oxidative stress and these may also have been important for the evolution of endosymbiosis.

    • Akihiro Uzuka
    • , Yusuke Kobayashi
    • , Ryo Onuma
    • , Shunsuke Hirooka
    • , Yu Kanesaki
    • , Hirofumi Yoshikawa
    • , Takayuki Fujiwara
    •  & Shin-ya Miyagishima
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Chloroplasts are important for plant immunity against microbial pathogens. Here Xu et al. identify, in the wheat stripe rust fungus, a haustorium-specific protein that is translocated into chloroplasts and affects chloroplast function by interacting with a putative component of the plant cytochrome b6-f complex.

    • Qiang Xu
    • , Chunlei Tang
    • , Xiaodong Wang
    • , Shutian Sun
    • , Jinren Zhao
    • , Zhensheng Kang
    •  & Xiaojie Wang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Trypanosoma brucei relies on uptake and conversion of purines from the host, which constitutes a potential drug target. Here, Hulpia et al. combine structural elements from known trypanocidal nucleoside analogues and develop a potent trypanocide with curative activity in animal models of acute and late stage sleeping sickness.

    • Fabian Hulpia
    • , Dorien Mabille
    • , Gustavo D. Campagnaro
    • , Gabriela Schumann
    • , Louis Maes
    • , Isabel Roditi
    • , Anders Hofer
    • , Harry P. de Koning
    • , Guy Caljon
    •  & Serge Van Calenbergh
  • Article
    | Open Access

    SPOR domains are present in bacterial proteins that recognize cell-wall peptidoglycan strands stripped of the peptide stems. Here, Alcorlo et al. show that, indeed, the presence of peptide stems abrogates binding to a SPOR domain, and provide insights into the molecular basis for recognition.

    • Martín Alcorlo
    • , David A. Dik
    • , Stefania De Benedetti
    • , Kiran V. Mahasenan
    • , Mijoon Lee
    • , Teresa Domínguez-Gil
    • , Dusan Hesek
    • , Elena Lastochkin
    • , Daniel López
    • , Bill Boggess
    • , Shahriar Mobashery
    •  & Juan A. Hermoso
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Tightly controlling cell output is challenging, which has limited development and applications of bacterial sensors. Here the authors develop tunable, fast-responding sensors to control production of metabolic pigments and use them to assess zinc deficiency in a low-cost, minimal equipment fashion.

    • Monica P. McNerney
    • , Cirstyn L. Michel
    • , Krishi Kishore
    • , Janet Standeven
    •  & Mark P. Styczynski
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems to protect themselves against viral infections. Here, Watson et al. show that a type I CRISPR-Cas system can induce abortive viral infection, where infected cells do not survive but viral propagation is decreased, thus protecting the bacterial population.

    • Bridget N. J. Watson
    • , Reuben B. Vercoe
    • , George P. C. Salmond
    • , Edze R. Westra
    • , Raymond H. J Staals
    •  & Peter C. Fineran
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Avian influenza A virus (IAV) strains replicate poorly in mammalian hosts, but mechanisms underlying species restriction are incompletely understood. Here, Bogdanow et al. show that avian and mammalian adapted IAV strains have evolved different RNA structure features for regulation of M segment RNA splicing.

    • Boris Bogdanow
    • , Xi Wang
    • , Katrin Eichelbaum
    • , Anne Sadewasser
    • , Immanuel Husic
    • , Katharina Paki
    • , Matthias Budt
    • , Martha Hergeselle
    • , Barbara Vetter
    • , Jingyi Hou
    • , Wei Chen
    • , Lüder Wiebusch
    • , Irmtraud M. Meyer
    • , Thorsten Wolff
    •  & Matthias Selbach
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Mechanistic insight into the regulation of transcriptional modules remains scarce. Here, the authors identify statistically independent gene sets by applying independent component analysis to a high-quality E. coli RNA-seq data compendium and find that most gene sets represent the effects of specific transcriptional regulators.

    • Anand V. Sastry
    • , Ye Gao
    • , Richard Szubin
    • , Ying Hefner
    • , Sibei Xu
    • , Donghyuk Kim
    • , Kumari Sonal Choudhary
    • , Laurence Yang
    • , Zachary A. King
    •  & Bernhard O. Palsson
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are associated with changes in the gut microbiome. Here, the authors evaluate the relationship between the gut microbiome and development of UTI in kidney transplant patients and show that uropathogenic gut abundance might represent a risk factor for development of bacteriuria and UTI.

    • Matthew Magruder
    • , Adam N. Sholi
    • , Catherine Gong
    • , Lisa Zhang
    • , Emmanuel Edusei
    • , Jennifer Huang
    • , Shady Albakry
    • , Michael J. Satlin
    • , Lars F. Westblade
    • , Carl Crawford
    • , Darshana M. Dadhania
    • , Michelle Lubetzky
    • , Ying Taur
    • , Eric Littman
    • , Lilan Ling
    • , Philip Burnham
    • , Iwijn De Vlaminck
    • , Eric Pamer
    • , Manikkam Suthanthiran
    •  & John Richard Lee
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The off-target effects and on-target mutations of CRISPR editing in higher non-human primates are complex. Here the authors perform whole genome trio sequencing of rhesus monkeys and see no unexpected mutations.

    • Xin Luo
    • , Yaoxi He
    • , Chao Zhang
    • , Xiechao He
    • , Lanzhen Yan
    • , Min Li
    • , Ting Hu
    • , Yan Hu
    • , Jin Jiang
    • , Xiaoyu Meng
    • , Weizhi Ji
    • , Xudong Zhao
    • , Ping Zheng
    • , Shuhua Xu
    •  & Bing Su
  • Article
    | Open Access

    CRISPR-Cas systems have well characterized, modular structures. Here the authors use that architecture to design a Cas12a library of 560 synthetic chimeras, with altered PAM preferences and specificities.

    • R. M. Liu
    • , L. L. Liang
    • , E. Freed
    • , H. Chang
    • , E. Oh
    • , Z. Y. Liu
    • , A. Garst
    • , C. A. Eckert
    •  & R. T. Gill
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The authors build a reference phylogeny of 10,575 evenly-sampled bacterial and archaeal genomes, based on 381 markers. The results indicate a remarkably closer evolutionary proximity between Archaea and Bacteria than previous estimates that used fewer “core” genes, such as the ribosomal proteins.

    • Qiyun Zhu
    • , Uyen Mai
    • , Wayne Pfeiffer
    • , Stefan Janssen
    • , Francesco Asnicar
    • , Jon G. Sanders
    • , Pedro Belda-Ferre
    • , Gabriel A. Al-Ghalith
    • , Evguenia Kopylova
    • , Daniel McDonald
    • , Tomasz Kosciolek
    • , John B. Yin
    • , Shi Huang
    • , Nimaichand Salam
    • , Jian-Yu Jiao
    • , Zijun Wu
    • , Zhenjiang Z. Xu
    • , Kalen Cantrell
    • , Yimeng Yang
    • , Erfan Sayyari
    • , Maryam Rabiee
    • , James T. Morton
    • , Sheila Podell
    • , Dan Knights
    • , Wen-Jun Li
    • , Curtis Huttenhower
    • , Nicola Segata
    • , Larry Smarr
    • , Siavash Mirarab
    •  & Rob Knight
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are used by bacteria to inject toxic effector proteins into neighbouring cells. Here, Mariano et al. show that an antibacterial effector from Serratia marcescens forms cation-selective pores that lead to inner-membrane depolarisation and increased outer-membrane permeability.

    • Giuseppina Mariano
    • , Katharina Trunk
    • , David J. Williams
    • , Laura Monlezun
    • , Henrik Strahl
    • , Samantha J. Pitt
    •  & Sarah J. Coulthurst
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The folding-dependent catalytic behavior of enzymes is of fundamental biological importance, yet mechanistically underexplored. Here, the authors show that an α-helix, commonly found in proteins, can facilitate its own growth through the self-catalyzed polymerization of N-carboxyanhydride in solvents with low polarity.

    • Ziyuan Song
    • , Hailin Fu
    • , Ryan Baumgartner
    • , Lingyang Zhu
    • , Kuo-Chih Shih
    • , Yingchun Xia
    • , Xuetao Zheng
    • , Lichen Yin
    • , Christophe Chipot
    • , Yao Lin
    •  & Jianjun Cheng
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Inducible genome editing systems often suffer from leakiness or reduced activity. Here the authors develop CRISPR-Switch, a Cre recombinase ON/OFF-controlled sgRNA cassette that allows consecutive editing of two loci.

    • Krzysztof Chylinski
    • , Maria Hubmann
    • , Ruth E. Hanna
    • , Connor Yanchus
    • , Georg Michlits
    • , Esther C. H. Uijttewaal
    • , John Doench
    • , Daniel Schramek
    •  & Ulrich Elling
  • Article
    | Open Access

    One measurement of tuberculosis vaccine efficacy in clinical trials is prevention of disease, but different mechanisms can underlie disease prevention. Here, the authors develop a mathematical model that allows to identify mechanisms of action of a vaccine preventing TB disease.

    • Mario Tovar
    • , Sergio Arregui
    • , Dessislava Marinova
    • , Carlos Martín
    • , Joaquín Sanz
    •  & Yamir Moreno
  • Article
    | Open Access

    It remains challenging to estimate carbon accumulation rates in tidal wetlands on a scale as large as the conterminous US. Here, the authors find that mean C accumulation rates vary greatly among watershed regions but not among vegetation types, and that tidal wetlands’ C sequestration capability will remain or increase by 2100, suggesting a resilience to sea level rise.

    • Faming Wang
    • , Xiaoliang Lu
    • , Christian J. Sanders
    •  & Jianwu Tang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Bacterial type II secretion systems (T2SSs) translocate virulence factors, toxins and enzymes across the cell outer membrane. Here, Chernyatina and Low use negative stain and cryo-electron microscopy to reveal the core architecture of an assembled T2SS from the pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    • Anastasia A. Chernyatina
    •  & Harry H. Low
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Established bacterial glycoengineering platforms limit access to protein and glycan substrates. Here the authors design a cytoplasmic protein glycosylation system, Glycoli, to generate a variety of multivalent glycostructures.

    • Hanne L. P. Tytgat
    • , Chia-wei Lin
    • , Mikail D. Levasseur
    • , Markus B. Tomek
    • , Christoph Rutschmann
    • , Jacqueline Mock
    • , Nora Liebscher
    • , Naohiro Terasaka
    • , Yusuke Azuma
    • , Michael Wetter
    • , Martin F. Bachmann
    • , Donald Hilvert
    • , Markus Aebi
    •  & Timothy G. Keys
  • Article
    | Open Access

    In bacteria, the conserved trans-translation system serves as the primary pathway of ribosome rescue, but many species can also use alternative rescue pathways. Here the authors report that in B. subtilis, the rescue factor BrfA binds to non-stop stalled ribosomes, recruits RF2 but not RF1, and induces transition of the ribosome into an open active conformation.

    • Naomi Shimokawa-Chiba
    • , Claudia Müller
    • , Keigo Fujiwara
    • , Bertrand Beckert
    • , Koreaki Ito
    • , Daniel N. Wilson
    •  & Shinobu Chiba
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, the authors identify a broadly neutralizing antibody from an HIV-infected person that recognizes the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) and has a short CDRH3 and low polyreactivity. Structural analysis shows how the antibody binds the MPER and Env on the viral membrane.

    • Lei Zhang
    • , Adriana Irimia
    • , Lingling He
    • , Elise Landais
    • , Kimmo Rantalainen
    • , Daniel P. Leaman
    • , Thomas Vollbrecht
    • , Armando Stano
    • , Daniel I. Sands
    • , Arthur S. Kim
    • , George Miiro
    • , Jennifer Serwanga
    • , Anton Pozniak
    • , Dale McPhee
    • , Oliver Manigart
    • , Lawrence Mwananyanda
    • , Etienne Karita
    • , André Inwoley
    • , Walter Jaoko
    • , Jack DeHovitz
    • , Linda-Gail Bekker
    • , Punnee Pitisuttithum
    • , Robert Paris
    • , Susan Allen
    • , Pascal Poignard
    • , Dennis R. Burton
    • , Ben Murrell
    • , Andrew B. Ward
    • , Jiang Zhu
    • , Ian A. Wilson
    •  & Michael B. Zwick
  • Article
    | Open Access

    ISG15 is a ubiquitin-like modifier that can be upregulated in response to bacterial infections. Here, the authors use proteomics to identify endogenous ISGylation substrates in the liver of Listeria monocytogenes infected mice and show that ISGylation alters basal and infection-induced autophagy.

    • Yifeng Zhang
    • , Fabien Thery
    • , Nicholas C. Wu
    • , Emma K. Luhmann
    • , Olivier Dussurget
    • , Mariko Foecke
    • , Clara Bredow
    • , Daniel Jiménez-Fernández
    • , Kevin Leandro
    • , Antje Beling
    • , Klaus-Peter Knobeloch
    • , Francis Impens
    • , Pascale Cossart
    •  & Lilliana Radoshevich
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A significant proportion of the molecular evolution of bacteria and archaea occurs through gene gain and loss. Here Iranzo et al. develop a mathematical model that explains observed differential patterns of sequence evolution vs. gene content evolution as a consequence of homologous recombination.

    • Jaime Iranzo
    • , Yuri I. Wolf
    • , Eugene V. Koonin
    •  & Itamar Sela
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Carbon sources can modulate biofilm formation and host colonization in Vibrio cholerae. Here, Heo et al. show that this process is mediated by a component of the PEP:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS), which regulates c-di-GMP hydrolysis by interacting with a c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase.

    • Kyoo Heo
    • , Young-Ha Park
    • , Kyung-Ah Lee
    • , Joonwon Kim
    • , Hyeong-In Ham
    • , Byung-Gee Kim
    • , Won-Jae Lee
    •  & Yeong-Jae Seok
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Some bacteria can take up DNA molecules from the environment. Here, Damke et al. identify a DNA-binding protein in Helicobacter pylori that is required for DNA import into the periplasm and that interacts with an inner-membrane channel that translocates the DNA into the cytoplasm.

    • Prashant P. Damke
    • , Anne Marie Di Guilmi
    • , Paloma Fernández Varela
    • , Christophe Velours
    • , Stéphanie Marsin
    • , Xavier Veaute
    • , Mérick Machouri
    • , Gaurav V. Gunjal
    • , Desirazu N. Rao
    • , Jean-Baptiste Charbonnier
    •  & J. Pablo Radicella
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The role of Africa in the global spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is not well understood. Here, using evolutionary analyses, the authors show that Africa mainly acts as ecological sink for HPAI H5, and reveal varying paths of HPAI incursions either through domestic or wild birds.

    • Alice Fusaro
    • , Bianca Zecchin
    • , Bram Vrancken
    • , Celia Abolnik
    • , Rose Ademun
    • , Abdou Alassane
    • , Abdelsatar Arafa
    • , Joseph Adongo Awuni
    • , Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann
    • , M.’ Bétiégué Coulibaly
    • , Nicolas Gaidet
    • , Emilie Go-Maro
    • , Tony Joannis
    • , Simon Dickmu Jumbo
    • , Germaine Minoungou
    • , Clement Meseko
    • , Maman Moutari Souley
    • , Deo Birungi Ndumu
    • , Ismaila Shittu
    • , Augustin Twabela
    • , Abel Wade
    • , Lidewij Wiersma
    • , Yao P. Akpeli
    • , Gianpiero Zamperin
    • , Adelaide Milani
    • , Philippe Lemey
    •  & Isabella Monne
  • Article
    | Open Access

    In Myxococcus xanthus, directed movement is controlled by pole-to-pole oscillations of the small GTPase MglA and its GAP MglB. Here authors report the complete MglA/MglB structural cycle and uncover that MglA is a three-state GTPase that adopts an atypical GTP-bound state that is refractory to inactivation by MglB.

    • Christian Galicia
    • , Sébastien Lhospice
    • , Paloma Fernández Varela
    • , Stefano Trapani
    • , Wenhua Zhang
    • , Jorge Navaza
    • , Julien Herrou
    • , Tâm Mignot
    •  & Jacqueline Cherfils
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The authors show that the fungal pathogen Candida albicans exploits diverse host-associated signals, including specific nutrients and stresses, to promote immune evasion by masking cell wall β-glucan, a major pathogen-associated molecular pattern.

    • Arnab Pradhan
    • , Gabriela M. Avelar
    • , Judith M. Bain
    • , Delma Childers
    • , Chloe Pelletier
    • , Daniel E. Larcombe
    • , Elena Shekhova
    • , Mihai G. Netea
    • , Gordon D. Brown
    • , Lars Erwig
    • , Neil A. R. Gow
    •  & Alistair J. P. Brown
  • Article
    | Open Access

    NLRP3 activation by Leishmania parasites is critical to the outcome of the disease. Here the authors show that LRV, a virus infecting Leishmania strains associated with more severe human disease, enables the parasite to suppress the inflammasome by activating type 1 interferon through TLR3, which leads to autophagy-mediated NLRP3 degradation.

    • Renan V. H. de Carvalho
    • , Djalma S. Lima-Junior
    • , Marcus Vinícius G. da Silva
    • , Marisa Dilucca
    • , Tamara S. Rodrigues
    • , Catarina V. Horta
    • , Alexandre L. N. Silva
    • , Patrick F. da Silva
    • , Fabiani G. Frantz
    • , Lucas B. Lorenzon
    • , Marcos Michel Souza
    • , Fausto Almeida
    • , Lilian M. Cantanhêde
    • , Ricardo de Godoi M. Ferreira
    • , Angela K. Cruz
    •  & Dario S. Zamboni
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Bacterial pathogens often carry multiple phage-derived elements within their genome. Here, the authors show that two phage elements are co-regulated in Listeria monocytogenes, the first one controlling the induction of the second one, which in turn regulates virulence of their bacterial host.

    • Tal Argov
    • , Shai Ran Sapir
    • , Anna Pasechnek
    • , Gil Azulay
    • , Olga Stadnyuk
    • , Lev Rabinovich
    • , Nadejda Sigal
    • , Ilya Borovok
    •  & Anat A. Herskovits
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, the authors combine in silico analysis of 435 genomes of ruminal bacteria and archaea with transcriptomics and in vitro assays to investigate the distribution, expression and mobility of antibiotic resistance genes within the ruminal microbiota, finding that the tet(W) gene is under positive selective pressure.

    • Yasmin Neves Vieira Sabino
    • , Mateus Ferreira Santana
    • , Linda Boniface Oyama
    • , Fernanda Godoy Santos
    • , Ana Júlia Silva Moreira
    • , Sharon Ann Huws
    •  & Hilário Cuquetto Mantovani
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Iron is critical for fueling marine primary productivity, but its concentration is often vanishingly low in the ocean. Here, the authors show that though icebergs serve as vehicles delivering the largest supply of iron to polar oceans, the amount of iron they carry varies widely.

    • Mark J. Hopwood
    • , Dustin Carroll
    • , Juan Höfer
    • , Eric P. Achterberg
    • , Lorenz Meire
    • , Frédéric A. C. Le Moigne
    • , Lennart T. Bach
    • , Charlotte Eich
    • , David A. Sutherland
    •  & Humberto E. González
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Multiplexed genome engineering with Cas9 can increase efficiency but also the risk of unintended alterations. Here the authors demonstrate the use of multiplexed base editors on primary T cells with reduced translocation frequency.

    • Beau R. Webber
    • , Cara-lin Lonetree
    • , Mitchell G. Kluesner
    • , Matthew J. Johnson
    • , Emily J. Pomeroy
    • , Miechaleen D. Diers
    • , Walker S. Lahr
    • , Garrett M. Draper
    • , Nicholas J. Slipek
    • , Branden A. Smeester
    • , Klaus N. Lovendahl
    • , Amber N. McElroy
    • , Wendy R. Gordon
    • , Mark J. Osborn
    •  & Branden S. Moriarity
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Interactions between electroactive bacteria and metal oxides are used for bioremediation. Here, the authors report on the application of Fe(III)-containing metal organic frameworks as substrates for bacterial growth which allow for remediation of lethal levels of chromium with high efficacy over several cycles.

    • Sarah K. Springthorpe
    • , Christopher M. Dundas
    •  & Benjamin K. Keitz
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The pathogenic bacterium Legionella pneumophila infects lung macrophages and environmental amoebae. Here, Personnic et al. show that the pathogen reversibly forms virulent, antibiotic-tolerant subpopulations during infection of macrophages and amoebae, in a process regulated by the Lqs quorum-sensing system.

    • Nicolas Personnic
    • , Bianca Striednig
    • , Emmanuelle Lezan
    • , Christian Manske
    • , Amanda Welin
    • , Alexander Schmidt
    •  & Hubert Hilbi