Lymphokines are cytokines produced by T cells (lymphocytes) of the immune system. Lymphokines act to attract additional immune cells to mount an immune response, for instance in stimulating B cells to generate antibodies against the invading pathogen.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research | | open

    CD4 T cell polarizations and functions are regulated by cytokines from innate cells. Here the authors show that IL-1 deficiency does not impair the differentiation of Th1, Th2 and Th17, but IL-1 signaling is required for maintaining the expressions of their respective key cytokines to ‘license’ the functions of these T cell subsets.

    • Aakanksha Jain
    • , Ran Song
    • , Edward K. Wakeland
    •  & Chandrashekhar Pasare
  • Research | | open

    The transcription factor Foxo1 can control regulatory T cell and Th1 function. Here the authors show that Foxo1 is also critical for IL-9 production by Th9 cells and other IL-9-producing cells.

    • Sakshi Malik
    • , Srikanth Sadhu
    • , Srikanth Elesela
    • , Ramendra Pati Pandey
    • , Amanpreet Singh Chawla
    • , Deepak Sharma
    • , Lipsa Panda
    • , Deepak Rathore
    • , Balram Ghosh
    • , Vineet Ahuja
    •  & Amit Awasthi
  • Reviews |

    The prostate is an immune-competent organ and several stimuli have been identified as possible triggers for dysregulation of the prostatic immune system via molecular pathways involving the development of inflammatory infiltrates. From a pathophysiological standpoint, subsequent tissue damage and chronic tissue healing could result in the development of BPH nodules. In this Review, the authors discuss the immunopathology of BPH and consider its links to prostate cancer and other disorders from an immunological viewpoint.

    • Cosimo De Nunzio
    • , Fabrizio Presicce
    •  & Andrea Tubaro
  • Research |

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is overexpressed in numerous tumors and has been correlated with the development of breast cancer, but the mechanism(s) have largely remained unknown. Suppression of autophagy has now been unraveled as a pivotal mechanism underlying MIF's role in breast cancer. Strikingly, the study demonstrates that MIF phenocopies the anti-autophagic effects of steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3), a known oncogene, which in turn drives MIF gene expression.

    • Omar El Bounkari
    •  & Jürrgen Bernhagen
    Cell Research 22, 950-953

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