Lipoproteins

Lipoproteins are large spherical complexes that consist of lipids and proteins. The hydrophobic core consists of triglycerides and a hydrophobic form of cholesterol (cholesteryl esters) is surrounded by a hydrophilic monolayer of free cholesterol, phospholipids and apoproteins. Lipoproteins function in transporting lipids contained within through the bloodstream.

Latest Research and Reviews

News and Comment

  • News and Views |

    The entry of remnants of cholesterol-rich lipoproteins, such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL), from the blood stream into the intima of large arteries initiates and then perpetuates atherosclerosis. A study published in Nature sheds new light on this important process by identifying scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) as a major receptor that mediates LDL delivery across the endothelium into arteries.

    • Xinbo Zhang
    •  & Carlos Fernández-Hernando
    Nature Metabolism 1, 586-587
  • Research Highlights |

    The scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SRB1) in endothelial cells mediates active transcellular transport of circulating LDL into the artery wall and thereby drives the accumulation of LDL in macrophages, which become foam cells and promote the development of atherosclerosis

    • Irene Fernández-Ruiz
  • Comments and Opinion |

    LDL cholesterol is an important contributor to the risk of coronary heart disease, and its measurement is central to evaluating the effects of lipid-modifying therapies. Several ‘LDL-cholesterol’ assays exist but their methodologies differ, leading to between-assay heterogeneity in values of ‘LDL cholesterol’. We advocate the need for awareness of the potential implications.

    • Michael V. Holmes
    •  & Mika Ala-Korpela
  • News and Views |

    The FOURIER trial shows that evolocumab, an injectable monoclonal antibody against PCSK9, decreased the risk of cardiovascular events in high-risk patients receiving statin therapy. The beneficial effects of this drug were consistent with an absolute reduction in LDL cholesterol levels, although studies with a longer follow-up period are needed.

    • David Preiss
    •  & Colin Baigent
  • News and Views |

    Statins reduce the risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease in healthy individuals and those with chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, clinical trials have suggested a minimal effect of statins on CKD progression. The PLANET trials compared the renal effects of rosuvastatin and atorvastatin, but the findings leave many questions unanswered.

    • Richard Haynes
    •  & Christoph Wanner