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Imiquimod exacerbates IL-23-induced skin inflammation and models psoriasis in mice. Here the authors show that this pathology is not dependent on resident dendritic cells, but on CCR6-induced immigration of monocyte-derived cells.
Hair is a skin component that functions as a physical barrier and thermal regulator. Nagao and colleagues show that hair follicles recruit Langerhans cells to the epidermis via the secretion of various chemokines.
Tissue-specific Langerhans cells and microglia develop in situ before birth. Colonna and colleagues identify IL-34 produced by keratinocytes and neurons as the relevant ligand of CSF1R necessary for their generation.
CD1a on Langerhans cells in the epidermis is the lipid receptor for the plant-derived allergen urushiol and self lipids and is a key amplifier of inflammatory responses in urushiol-induced contact dermatitis as well as in psoriasis.
Paradoxically, radiotherapy can reinforce immunosuppressive pathways that undermine anticancer immunosurveillance and treatment efficacy. Irradiation induces Langerhans cells to migrate from the skin to lymph nodes, where they stimulate regulatory T cells.
Most myeloid cells express the growth-factor receptor CSF1R. Recognition of interleukin 34 by CSF1R is required for the development of tissue-resident Langerhans cells and microglia, which explains the independence of their growth from CSF1.