Islets of Langerhans

Definition

The islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain cells that produce hormones. There are five types of cells in the islets of Langerhans: beta cells secrete insulin; alpha cells secrete glucagon; PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide; delta cells secrete somatostatin; and epsilon cells secrete ghrelin.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research | | open

    Our incomplete understanding of how pancreatic beta cells form limits the generation of beta-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC). Here, the authors identify a ROCKII inhibitor H1152 as increasing insulin secreting cells from hPSCs and improving beta-cell maturation on transplantation in vivo.

    • Zaniar Ghazizadeh
    • , Der-I Kao
    • , Sadaf Amin
    • , Brandoch Cook
    • , Sahana Rao
    • , Ting Zhou
    • , Tuo Zhang
    • , Zhaoying Xiang
    • , Reyn Kenyon
    • , Omer Kaymakcalan
    • , Chengyang Liu
    • , Todd Evans
    •  & Shuibing Chen
  • Research | | open

    Deregulation of mTORC1 pathway has been associated with several human diseases including diabetes, neurodegeneration and cancer. Here Blandino-Rosano et al. show that mTORC1 signalling controls insulin secretion and β-cell maintenance by regulation of β-cell proliferation, apoptosis and autophagy and insulin processing.

    • Manuel Blandino-Rosano
    • , Rebecca Barbaresso
    • , Margarita Jimenez-Palomares
    • , Nadejda Bozadjieva
    • , Joao Pedro Werneck-de-Castro
    • , Masayuki Hatanaka
    • , Raghavendra G. Mirmira
    • , Nahum Sonenberg
    • , Ming Liu
    • , Markus A. Rüegg
    • , Michael N. Hall
    •  & Ernesto Bernal-Mizrachi
  • Research | | open

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. Here Axelsson et al. show that Sox5, which is reduced in diabetes, regulates a set of differentially expressed genes in T2D and its genetic and pharmacological induction improves insulin secretion by diabetic islets.

    • A. S. Axelsson
    • , T. Mahdi
    • , H. A. Nenonen
    • , T. Singh
    • , S. Hänzelmann
    • , A. Wendt
    • , A. Bagge
    • , T. M. Reinbothe
    • , J. Millstein
    • , X. Yang
    • , B. Zhang
    • , E. G. Gusmao
    • , L. Shu
    • , M. Szabat
    • , Y. Tang
    • , J. Wang
    • , S. Salö
    • , L. Eliasson
    • , I. Artner
    • , M. Fex
    • , J. D. Johnson
    • , C. B. Wollheim
    • , J.M.J. Derry
    • , B. Mecham
    • , P. Spégel
    • , H. Mulder
    • , I.G. Costa
    • , E. Zhang
    •  & A. H. Rosengren
  • Reviews |

    Islet transplantation can be an effective therapy for patients with type 1 diabetes, but its widespread use is limited by the need for lifelong immunosuppression. Here, Desai and Shea discuss the emerging potential of islet cell encapsulation including new strategies, assess key challenges facing the human translation of this technology and highlight encapsulation devices that have entered the clinic.

    • Tejal Desai
    •  & Lonnie D. Shea
  • Research | | open

    Beta-arrestins have key roles in development and metabolic functions as euglycaemic control and insulin sentitivity. Here Zhu et al. show that beta-arrestin-2 regulates insulin secretion and glucose tolerance in mice by promoting CAMKII functions in beta cells.

    • Lu Zhu
    • , Joana Almaça
    • , Prasanna K. Dadi
    • , Hao Hong
    • , Wataru Sakamoto
    • , Mario Rossi
    • , Regina J. Lee
    • , Nicholas C. Vierra
    • , Huiyan Lu
    • , Yinghong Cui
    • , Sara M. McMillin
    • , Nicole A. Perry
    • , Vsevolod V. Gurevich
    • , Amy Lee
    • , Bryan Kuo
    • , Richard D. Leapman
    • , Franz M. Matschinsky
    • , Nicolai M. Doliba
    • , Nikhil M. Urs
    • , Marc G. Caron
    • , David A. Jacobson
    • , Alejandro Caicedo
    •  & Jürgen Wess

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