Islets of Langerhans

The islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain cells that produce hormones. There are five types of cells in the islets of Langerhans: beta cells secrete insulin; alpha cells secrete glucagon; PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide; delta cells secrete somatostatin; and epsilon cells secrete ghrelin.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Reviews |

    Loss or dysfunction of β-cells is a characteristic of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Regeneration of β-cells might stop or reverse the progression of the disease. This Review discusses the different modelling systems and technologies currently used to study β-cell biology in health and disease.

    • Mostafa Bakhti
    • , Anika Böttcher
    •  & Heiko Lickert
  • Reviews |

    The signalling events leading to insulin release from β-cells are tightly controlled and new techniques are needed to understand the complicated interactions. This Review discusses new optical tools available to further our understanding of β-cell function and insulin release.

    • James A. Frank
    • , Johannes Broichhagen
    • , Dmytro A. Yushchenko
    • , Dirk Trauner
    • , Carsten Schultz
    •  & David J. Hodson
  • Reviews |

    Over the past 10 years, evidence has accumulated to suggest that α-cells are involved in the development of diabetes mellitus. This Review outlines our current understanding of α-cells and discusses how they could be targeted in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

    • Jesper Gromada
    • , Pauline Chabosseau
    •  & Guy A. Rutter
  • Research | | open

    Hyperinsulinemia can precede the development of insulin resistance. Here the authors identify a PKD2 mutation that leads to hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in Rhesus monkey and show that PKD2 deficiency promotes beta cell insulin secretion by activating L-type Ca2+ channels.

    • Yao Xiao
    • , Can Wang
    • , Jia-Yu Chen
    • , Fujian Lu
    • , Jue Wang
    • , Ning Hou
    • , Xiaomin Hu
    • , Fanxin Zeng
    • , Dongwei Ma
    • , Xueting Sun
    • , Yi Ding
    • , Yan Zhang
    • , Wen Zheng
    • , Yuli Liu
    • , Haibao Shang
    • , Wenzhen Zhu
    • , Chensheng Han
    • , Yulin Zhang
    • , Kunfu Ouyang
    • , Liangyi Chen
    • , Ju Chen
    • , Rui-Ping Xiao
    • , Chuan-Yun Li
    •  & Xiuqin Zhang
  • Research | | open

    Insulin secretion by β-cells is stimulated by glucose and is dependent on the induction of β-cell membrane depolarization, mainly driven by the closure of KATP channels, which in turn promotes voltage-gated Ca2+ channel opening. Here the authors show that LRRC8 volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs) modulate glucose-stimulated calcium increase and insulin secretion.

    • Till Stuhlmann
    • , Rosa Planells-Cases
    •  & Thomas J. Jentsch

News and Comment