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Intracellular movement is the movement of structures (like organelles) within the cell. It is distinguished from transcellular and paracellular movement, which pertain to transport across a cellular membrane.
Intracellular transport is facilitated by a combination of processes including directed transport, advection and diffusion. Here the authors microscopically characterise the dynamics of the Drosophila oocyte and find distinct contributions of cytoskeletal components to advection and active diffusion.
Methods to probe transport dynamics within cells can shed insight into the nature of the cytoplasm. Here the authors develop a method to functionalize and deliver quantum dots intracellularly to show how the cytoskeleton influences non-equilibrium intracellular transport dynamics.
Cytoplasmic dynein 2 drives retrograde intraflagellar transport but little is known about its dynamics. Here the authors use fluorescence microscopy to track labelled dynein 2 in C. elegans at the single-molecule level and report diffusion at the ciliary base, and pausing and directional switches along the cilium.
An optogenetic strategy allowing light-mediated recruitment of distinct cytoskeletal motor proteins to specific organelles is established; this technique enabled rapid and reversible activation or inhibition of the transport of organelles such as peroxisomes, recycling endosomes and mitochondria with high spatiotemporal accuracy, and the approach was also applied to primary neurons to demonstrate optical control of axonal growth by recycling endosome repositioning.
Subcellular compartmentalization established by mobilization of intracellular calcium stores in RIA interneurons provides a means of self-motion monitoring and a cellular basis for integrating sensory and motor signals in nematodes’ brains.