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This article provides an overview of the pathophysiology of enthesitis, from induction and inflammation to tissue proliferation and bone formation. Building on these pathophysiological concepts, the clinical presentation, assessment and treatment of enthesitis are also discussed.
Abolishing signals mediated by the inhibitory receptor PD-1 results in a systemic decrease in tryptophan and tyrosine, which leads to a striking deficiency in the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine in the brain and anxiety-like behavior and exacerbated fear.
High-throughput sequencing of B and T cell receptors is routinely being applied in studies of adaptive immunity. The Adaptive Immune Receptor Repertoire (AIRR) Community was formed in 2015 to address issues in AIRR sequencing studies, including the development of reporting standards for the sharing of data sets.