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The mechanism by which caffeine, an antagonist of adenosine receptors, regulates metabolism is not clear. Here the authors show that adenosine A1R receptor expression is increased in the hypothalamus of diet-induced obesity mice, and that body weight can be alleviated by central administration of caffeine via its action on hypothalamic oxytocin neurons.
Vincent Prevot and colleagues discuss the role of neuronal nitric oxide (NO) in the regulation of key physiological processes controlled by the preoptic region of the hypothalamus, including reproduction. How deregulation of NO production might be involved in the pathophysiology of brain diseases, for which hormonal imbalances during postnatal development could be a risk factor, is also discussed.
A combination of microprism-based cellular imaging to monitor insular cortex visual cue responses in behaving mice across hunger states with circuit mapping and manipulations reveals a neural basis for state-specific biased processing of motivationally relevant cues.
Although animal models have been used to understand the aetiologies of polycystic ovary syndrome, these models are possibly not the best tool to study the underlying causes of this syndrome, as the disorder is uniquely human and does not occur naturally in animals. A recent study illustrates this point.