Hydrocephalus refers to the medical condition in which an excessive amount of cerebrospinal fluid accumulates within the cranium. It often results in enlarged cerebral ventricles and increased intracranial pressure, which can be fatal.

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    Hydrocephalus describes an expansion of the cerebral ventricles that is associated with decreased cerebral volume and compromised neurological function. Although hydrocephalus mostly occurs sporadically, it is frequently associated with diseases caused by defective cilia function, including Bardet–Biedl syndrome (BBS). A new study reveals that hydrocephalus in a mouse model of BBS is related to defective proliferation and apoptosis of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and can be rescued with lithium treatment (pages 1797–1804).

    • Bethany N Sotak
    •  & Joseph G Gleeson
    Nature Medicine 18, 1742–1743