Health care

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used to study the rat brain. Here, the authors provide standardized MRI brain templates and descriptive atlases for the rat, incorporating both structural and functional MRI data, along with associated resources.

    • D. A. Barrière
    • , R. Magalhães
    • , A. Novais
    • , P. Marques
    • , E. Selingue
    • , F. Geffroy
    • , F. Marques
    • , J. Cerqueira
    • , J. C. Sousa
    • , F. Boumezbeur
    • , M. Bottlaender
    • , T. M. Jay
    • , A. Cachia
    • , N. Sousa
    •  & S. Mériaux
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, Nelson et al. use amplicon next-generation sequencing of two P. falciparum polymorphic gene regions to investigate the genetic similarity of parasite populations across time and space in a pediatric cohort in Kenya. They identify both micro- and macro-scale structuring of malaria parasites in this high-transmission setting, which could inform future intervention strategies.

    • Cody S. Nelson
    • , Kelsey M. Sumner
    • , Elizabeth Freedman
    • , Joseph W. Saelens
    • , Andrew A. Obala
    • , Judith N. Mangeni
    • , Steve M. Taylor
    •  & Wendy P. O’Meara
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Relapse, reinfection and recrudescence can all cause recurrent infection after treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria in endemic areas, but are difficult to distinguish. Here the authors show that they can be differentiated probabilistically and thereby demonstrate the high efficacy of primaquine treatment in preventing relapse.

    • Aimee R. Taylor
    • , James A. Watson
    • , Cindy S. Chu
    • , Kanokpich Puaprasert
    • , Jureeporn Duanguppama
    • , Nicholas P. J. Day
    • , Francois Nosten
    • , Daniel E. Neafsey
    • , Caroline O. Buckee
    • , Mallika Imwong
    •  & Nicholas J. White
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Trypanosoma brucei relies on uptake and conversion of purines from the host, which constitutes a potential drug target. Here, Hulpia et al. combine structural elements from known trypanocidal nucleoside analogues and develop a potent trypanocide with curative activity in animal models of acute and late stage sleeping sickness.

    • Fabian Hulpia
    • , Dorien Mabille
    • , Gustavo D. Campagnaro
    • , Gabriela Schumann
    • , Louis Maes
    • , Isabel Roditi
    • , Anders Hofer
    • , Harry P. de Koning
    • , Guy Caljon
    •  & Serge Van Calenbergh
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, the authors investigate the outcome of prevention services scale-up on HIV incidence in a South African large population-based HIV surveillance cohort with over a decade of follow-up and associate a 43% reduction in incidence to earlier male medical circumcision and increased levels of antiretroviral therapy coverage.

    • Alain Vandormael
    • , Adam Akullian
    • , Mark Siedner
    • , Tulio de Oliveira
    • , Till Bärnighausen
    •  & Frank Tanser
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The scaffold protein Scribble (Scrib) has roles in PCP and tight junction formation. Here the authors show that during embryo implantation in mouse, Scrib is needed to form the avascular primary decidual zone by transforming stromal cells into an epithelial cell-like barrier around the crypt, protecting the embryo from harmful infiltrations.

    • Jia Yuan
    • , Shizu Aikawa
    • , Wenbo Deng
    • , Amanda Bartos
    • , Gerd Walz
    • , Florian Grahammer
    • , Tobias B. Huber
    • , Xiaofei Sun
    •  & Sudhansu K. Dey
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Machine learning algorithms can be trained to estimate age from brain structural MRI. Here, the authors introduce a new deep-learning-based age prediction approach, and then carry out a GWAS of the difference between predicted and chronological age, revealing two associated variants.

    • B. A. Jonsson
    • , G. Bjornsdottir
    • , T. E. Thorgeirsson
    • , L. M. Ellingsen
    • , G. Bragi Walters
    • , D. F. Gudbjartsson
    • , H. Stefansson
    • , K. Stefansson
    •  & M. O. Ulfarsson
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Memories linking environmental cues to alcohol reward are involved in the development and maintenance of heavy drinking. Here, the authors show that a single dose of ketamine, given after retrieval of alcohol-reward memories, disrupts the reconsolidation of these memories and reduces drinking in humans.

    • Ravi K. Das
    • , Grace Gale
    • , Katie Walsh
    • , Vanessa E. Hennessy
    • , Georges Iskandar
    • , Luke A. Mordecai
    • , Brigitta Brandner
    • , Merel Kindt
    • , H. Valerie Curran
    •  & Sunjeev K. Kamboj
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Cervicovaginal inflammation and human papillomavirus (HPV) are separately associated with increased risk of HIV acquisition. Here the authors longitudinally profile 48 cervicovaginal cytokines and HPV status in a large observational HIV high-risk cohort, and show the same cytokines associate with HPV infection and HIV risk.

    • Lenine J. P. Liebenberg
    • , Lyle R. McKinnon
    • , Nonhlanhla Yende-Zuma
    • , Nigel Garrett
    • , Cheryl Baxter
    • , Ayesha B. M. Kharsany
    • , Derseree Archary
    • , Anne Rositch
    • , Natasha Samsunder
    • , Leila E. Mansoor
    • , Jo-Ann S. Passmore
    • , Salim S. Abdool Karim
    •  & Quarraisha Abdool Karim
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Treatment with demethylation agents can reactivate transposable elements. Here in glioblastoma, the authors also show that this is accompanied by de novo presentation of TE-derived peptides on MHC class I molecules.

    • Yu Kong
    • , Christopher M. Rose
    • , Ashley A. Cass
    • , Alexander G. Williams
    • , Martine Darwish
    • , Steve Lianoglou
    • , Peter M. Haverty
    • , Ann-Jay Tong
    • , Craig Blanchette
    • , Matthew L. Albert
    • , Ira Mellman
    • , Richard Bourgon
    • , John Greally
    • , Suchit Jhunjhunwala
    •  & Haiyin Chen-Harris
  • Article
    | Open Access

    From observational studies, alcohol consumption behaviours are known to be correlated in spouses. Here, Howe et al. use partners’ genotypic information in a Mendelian randomization framework and show that a SNP in the ADH1B gene associates with partner’s alcohol consumption, suggesting that alcohol consumption affects mate choice.

    • Laurence J. Howe
    • , Daniel J. Lawson
    • , Neil M. Davies
    • , Beate St. Pourcain
    • , Sarah J. Lewis
    • , George Davey Smith
    •  & Gibran Hemani
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Multiplexed genome engineering with Cas9 can increase efficiency but also the risk of unintended alterations. Here the authors demonstrate the use of multiplexed base editors on primary T cells with reduced translocation frequency.

    • Beau R. Webber
    • , Cara-lin Lonetree
    • , Mitchell G. Kluesner
    • , Matthew J. Johnson
    • , Emily J. Pomeroy
    • , Miechaleen D. Diers
    • , Walker S. Lahr
    • , Garrett M. Draper
    • , Nicholas J. Slipek
    • , Branden A. Smeester
    • , Klaus N. Lovendahl
    • , Amber N. McElroy
    • , Wendy R. Gordon
    • , Mark J. Osborn
    •  & Branden S. Moriarity
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Engineered T cells work as living therapeutics, but are prone to hyperreactivity and exhaustion. Here the authors improve CAR T cell antitumor responses by simultaneously targeting a CAR to TCR locus and IL-12 to PD1 locus, placing the transgenes under a naturally regulated transcriptional network while disrupting unwanted signals.

    • Mohit Sachdeva
    • , Brian W. Busser
    • , Sonal Temburni
    • , Billal Jahangiri
    • , Anne-Sophie Gautron
    • , Alan Maréchal
    • , Alexandre Juillerat
    • , Alan Williams
    • , Stéphane Depil
    • , Philippe Duchateau
    • , Laurent Poirot
    •  & Julien Valton
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Sleep duration is associated with an adverse lipid profile. Here, the authors perform genome-wide gene-by-sleep interaction analysis and find 49 previously unreported lipid loci when considering short or long total sleep time.

    • Raymond Noordam
    • , Maxime M. Bos
    • , Heming Wang
    • , Thomas W. Winkler
    • , Amy R. Bentley
    • , Tuomas O. Kilpeläinen
    • , Paul S. de Vries
    • , Yun Ju Sung
    • , Karen Schwander
    • , Brian E. Cade
    • , Alisa Manning
    • , Hugues Aschard
    • , Michael R. Brown
    • , Han Chen
    • , Nora Franceschini
    • , Solomon K. Musani
    • , Melissa Richard
    • , Dina Vojinovic
    • , Stella Aslibekyan
    • , Traci M. Bartz
    • , Lisa de las Fuentes
    • , Mary Feitosa
    • , Andrea R. Horimoto
    • , Marjan Ilkov
    • , Minjung Kho
    • , Aldi Kraja
    • , Changwei Li
    • , Elise Lim
    • , Yongmei Liu
    • , Dennis O. Mook-Kanamori
    • , Tuomo Rankinen
    • , Salman M. Tajuddin
    • , Ashley van der Spek
    • , Zhe Wang
    • , Jonathan Marten
    • , Vincent Laville
    • , Maris Alver
    • , Evangelos Evangelou
    • , Maria E. Graff
    • , Meian He
    • , Brigitte Kühnel
    • , Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen
    • , Pedro Marques-Vidal
    • , Ilja M. Nolte
    • , Nicholette D. Palmer
    • , Rainer Rauramaa
    • , Xiao-Ou Shu
    • , Harold Snieder
    • , Stefan Weiss
    • , Wanqing Wen
    • , Lisa R. Yanek
    • , Correa Adolfo
    • , Christie Ballantyne
    • , Larry Bielak
    • , Nienke R. Biermasz
    • , Eric Boerwinkle
    • , Niki Dimou
    • , Gudny Eiriksdottir
    • , Chuan Gao
    • , Sina A. Gharib
    • , Daniel J. Gottlieb
    • , José Haba-Rubio
    • , Tamara B. Harris
    • , Sami Heikkinen
    • , Raphaël Heinzer
    • , James E. Hixson
    • , Georg Homuth
    • , M. Arfan Ikram
    • , Pirjo Komulainen
    • , Jose E. Krieger
    • , Jiwon Lee
    • , Jingmin Liu
    • , Kurt K. Lohman
    • , Annemarie I. Luik
    • , Reedik Mägi
    • , Lisa W. Martin
    • , Thomas Meitinger
    • , Andres Metspalu
    • , Yuri Milaneschi
    • , Mike A. Nalls
    • , Jeff O’Connell
    • , Annette Peters
    • , Patricia Peyser
    • , Olli T. Raitakari
    • , Alex P. Reiner
    • , Patrick C. N. Rensen
    • , Treva K. Rice
    • , Stephen S. Rich
    • , Till Roenneberg
    • , Jerome I. Rotter
    • , Pamela J. Schreiner
    • , James Shikany
    • , Stephen S. Sidney
    • , Mario Sims
    • , Colleen M. Sitlani
    • , Tamar Sofer
    • , Konstantin Strauch
    • , Morris A. Swertz
    • , Kent D. Taylor
    • , André G. Uitterlinden
    • , Cornelia M. van Duijn
    • , Henry Völzke
    • , Melanie Waldenberger
    • , Robert B. Wallance
    • , Ko Willems van Dijk
    • , Caizheng Yu
    • , Alan B. Zonderman
    • , Diane M. Becker
    • , Paul Elliott
    • , Tõnu Esko
    • , Christian Gieger
    • , Hans J. Grabe
    • , Timo A. Lakka
    • , Terho Lehtimäki
    • , Kari E. North
    • , Brenda W. J. H. Penninx
    • , Peter Vollenweider
    • , Lynne E. Wagenknecht
    • , Tangchun Wu
    • , Yong-Bing Xiang
    • , Wei Zheng
    • , Donna K. Arnett
    • , Claude Bouchard
    • , Michele K. Evans
    • , Vilmundur Gudnason
    • , Sharon Kardia
    • , Tanika N. Kelly
    • , Stephen B. Kritchevsky
    • , Ruth J. F. Loos
    • , Alexandre C. Pereira
    • , Mike Province
    • , Bruce M. Psaty
    • , Charles Rotimi
    • , Xiaofeng Zhu
    • , Najaf Amin
    • , L. Adrienne Cupples
    • , Myriam Fornage
    • , Ervin F. Fox
    • , Xiuqing Guo
    • , W. James Gauderman
    • , Kenneth Rice
    • , Charles Kooperberg
    • , Patricia B. Munroe
    • , Ching-Ti Liu
    • , Alanna C. Morrison
    • , Dabeeru C. Rao
    • , Diana van Heemst
    •  & Susan Redline
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Successful anticancer immunotherapy should induce robust systemic immunity against metastases. Here, the authors engineer an inhalable nano-STING agonist, which synergizes with fractionated radiation to control lung metastases and confers long-term systemic antitumor immunity in mice.

    • Yang Liu
    • , William N. Crowe
    • , Lulu Wang
    • , Yong Lu
    • , W. Jeffrey Petty
    • , Amyn A. Habib
    •  & Dawen Zhao
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Imaging metastatic disease burden in lymph nodes is important for surgical decision making. Here, the authors use an antibody-dye conjugate to distinguish between metastatic and benign lymph nodes in head and neck cancer.

    • Naoki Nishio
    • , Nynke S. van den Berg
    • , Stan van Keulen
    • , Brock A. Martin
    • , Shayan Fakurnejad
    • , Nutte Teraphongphom
    • , Stefania U. Chirita
    • , Nicholas J. Oberhelman
    • , Guolan Lu
    • , Crista E. Horton
    • , Michael J. Kaplan
    • , Vasu Divi
    • , A. Dimitrios Colevas
    •  & Eben L. Rosenthal
  • Article
    | Open Access

    CD40 agonists have been investigated as a strategy to awaken the immune system against cancers. Here, the authors use a virus encoding CD40L and tumour-associated antigens to enhance innate and adaptive immunity that together with tumour targeting antibodies controls the growth of tumours in mice.

    • José Medina-Echeverz
    • , Maria Hinterberger
    • , Marco Testori
    • , Marlene Geiger
    • , Raphael Giessel
    • , Barbara Bathke
    • , Ronny Kassub
    • , Fabienne Gräbnitz
    • , Giovanna Fiore
    • , Sonia T. Wennier
    • , Paul Chaplin
    • , Mark Suter
    • , Hubertus Hochrein
    •  & Henning Lauterbach
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, in a cohort of infants unexposed to maternal antibiotics, the authors analyse the gut microbiome development of children born naturally and by caesarean section, finding a higher abundance of known pathogens in the latter group, and an association between these bacteria and a higher incidence of respiratory infections in the first year of life.

    • Marta Reyman
    • , Marlies A. van Houten
    • , Debbie van Baarle
    • , Astrid A. T. M. Bosch
    • , Wing Ho Man
    • , Mei Ling J. N. Chu
    • , Kayleigh Arp
    • , Rebecca L. Watson
    • , Elisabeth A. M. Sanders
    • , Susana Fuentes
    •  & Debby Bogaert
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The brain can often continue to function despite lesions in many areas, but damage to particular locations may have serious effects. Here, the authors use the concept of Ollivier-Ricci curvature to investigate the robustness of brain networks.

    • Hamza Farooq
    • , Yongxin Chen
    • , Tryphon T. Georgiou
    • , Allen Tannenbaum
    •  & Christophe Lenglet
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Non-invasive early diagnosis of liver fibrosis is important to prevent disease progression and direct treatment strategies. Here the authors developed a collagen-targeting contrast agent for the detection of early stage fibrosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis by magnetic resonance and tested it in animal models.

    • Mani Salarian
    • , Ravi Chakra Turaga
    • , Shenghui Xue
    • , Maysam Nezafati
    • , Khan Hekmatyar
    • , Jingjuan Qiao
    • , Yinwei Zhang
    • , Shanshan Tan
    • , Oluwatosin Y. Ibhagui
    • , Yan Hai
    • , Jibiao Li
    • , Rao Mukkavilli
    • , Malvika Sharma
    • , Pardeep Mittal
    • , Xiaoyi Min
    • , Shella Keilholz
    • , Liqing Yu
    • , Gengshen Qin
    • , Alton Brad Farris
    • , Zhi-Ren Liu
    •  & Jenny J. Yang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Food intake shapes intestinal microbiome composition, which in turn shapes adaptive immune responses. Here the authors show that dietary tryptophan restriction (DTR) protects mice from subsequent autoimmune neuropathology challenge by altering intestinal microbiota, highlighting the potential of diet-regulated microbiota to prevent immune pathology.

    • Jana K. Sonner
    • , Melanie Keil
    • , Maren Falk-Paulsen
    • , Neha Mishra
    • , Ateequr Rehman
    • , Magdalena Kramer
    • , Katrin Deumelandt
    • , Julian Röwe
    • , Khwab Sanghvi
    • , Lara Wolf
    • , Anna von Landenberg
    • , Hendrik Wolff
    • , Richa Bharti
    • , Iris Oezen
    • , Tobias V. Lanz
    • , Florian Wanke
    • , Yilang Tang
    • , Ines Brandao
    • , Soumya R. Mohapatra
    • , Lisa Epping
    • , Alexandra Grill
    • , Ralph Röth
    • , Beate Niesler
    • , Sven G. Meuth
    • , Christiane A. Opitz
    • , Jürgen G. Okun
    • , Christoph Reinhardt
    • , Florian C. Kurschus
    • , Wolfgang Wick
    • , Helge B. Bode
    • , Philip Rosenstiel
    •  & Michael Platten
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Many patients, following therapy for acute myocardial infarction, develop adverse cardiac remodelling. Here the authors present injectable recombinant human collagen 10 of 10 type I and III matrices that are able to limit adverse remodelling and improve function of the myocardium.

    • Sarah McLaughlin
    • , Brian McNeill
    • , James Podrebarac
    • , Katsuhiro Hosoyama
    • , Veronika Sedlakova
    • , Gregory Cron
    • , David Smyth
    • , Richard Seymour
    • , Keshav Goel
    • , Wenbin Liang
    • , Katey J. Rayner
    • , Marc Ruel
    • , Erik J. Suuronen
    •  & Emilio I. Alarcon
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Alterations to the microbiome are now associated with various diseases. Here the authors analyze microbiomes from a large population based cohort and show positive correlations between abundance of Streptococcus spp. and osteoarthritis-related knee pain.

    • Cindy G. Boer
    • , Djawad Radjabzadeh
    • , Carolina Medina-Gomez
    • , Sanzhima Garmaeva
    • , Dieuwke Schiphof
    • , Pascal Arp
    • , Thomas Koet
    • , Alexander Kurilshikov
    • , Jingyuan Fu
    • , M. Arfan Ikram
    • , Sita Bierma-Zeinstra
    • , André G. Uitterlinden
    • , Robert Kraaij
    • , Alexandra Zhernakova
    •  & Joyce B. J. van Meurs
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The activation of drugs within cellular systems may provide targeted therapies for cancer. Here, the authors make a drug delivery system that is activated within the cell and exploits XIAP expression to cleave a linker region, resulting in the self-assembly of the system and drug release within cancer cells.

    • Hong-Wei An
    • , Li-Li Li
    • , Yi Wang
    • , Ziqi Wang
    • , Dayong Hou
    • , Yao-Xin Lin
    • , Sheng-Lin Qiao
    • , Man-Di Wang
    • , Chao Yang
    • , Yong Cong
    • , Yang Ma
    • , Xiao-Xiao Zhao
    • , Qian Cai
    • , Wen-Ting Chen
    • , Chu-Qi Lu
    • , Wanhai Xu
    • , Hao Wang
    •  & Yuliang Zhao
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Uterine leiomyomata (UL) or fibroids are neoplasms of the uterine smooth muscle associated with heavy menstrual bleeding and other female reproductive tract morbidity. Here, the authors identify eight previously undescribed genetic loci for UL and further look into genetic overlap with heavy menstrual bleeding and endometriosis.

    • C. S. Gallagher
    • , N. Mäkinen
    • , H. R. Harris
    • , N. Rahmioglu
    • , O. Uimari
    • , J. P. Cook
    • , N. Shigesi
    • , T. Ferreira
    • , D. R. Velez-Edwards
    • , T. L. Edwards
    • , S. Mortlock
    • , Z. Ruhioglu
    • , F. Day
    • , C. M. Becker
    • , V. Karhunen
    • , H. Martikainen
    • , M.-R. Järvelin
    • , R. M. Cantor
    • , P. M. Ridker
    • , K. L. Terry
    • , J. E. Buring
    • , S. D. Gordon
    • , S. E. Medland
    • , G. W. Montgomery
    • , D. R. Nyholt
    • , D. A. Hinds
    • , J. Y. Tung
    • , Michelle Agee
    • , Babak Alipanahi
    • , Adam Auton
    • , Robert K. Bell
    • , Katarzyna Bryc
    • , Sarah L. Elson
    • , Pierre Fontanillas
    • , Nicholas A. Furlotte
    • , Karen E. Huber
    • , Aaron Kleinman
    • , Nadia K. Litterman
    • , Matthew H. McIntyre
    • , Joanna L. Mountain
    • , Elizabeth S. Noblin
    • , Carrie A. M. Northover
    • , Steven J. Pitts
    • , J. Fah Sathirapongsasuti
    • , Olga V. Sazonova
    • , Janie F. Shelton
    • , Suyash Shringarpure
    • , Chao Tian
    • , Vladimir Vacic
    • , Catherine H. Wilson
    • , J. R. B. Perry
    • , P. A. Lind
    • , J. N. Painter
    • , N. G. Martin
    • , A. P. Morris
    • , D. I. Chasman
    • , S. A. Missmer
    • , K. T. Zondervan
    •  & C. C. Morton
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Currently there are no therapeutics for long lasting central nervous system injuries, that can address the complex injury cascade that develops over years. Here the authors report biomaterial scaffolds that release 17β-estradiol (E2) at nanomolar concentrations over the course of 1–10 years via slow hydrolysis in vitro.

    • Anthony R. D’Amato
    • , Devan L. Puhl
    • , Samuel A. T. Ellman
    • , Bailey Balouch
    • , Ryan J. Gilbert
    •  & Edmund F. Palermo
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Activation of T cells in the tumor microenvironment can be inhibited through a variety of mechanisms. Here, the authors show that Rasal1, a GTPase-activating protein, binds and inhibits signaling downstream of the T Cell Receptor complex and that consistently, its reduced expression enhances anti-tumor T-cell responses in two syngeneic cancer mouse models.

    • Youg Raj Thaker
    • , Monika Raab
    • , Klaus Strebhardt
    •  & Christopher E. Rudd
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Numerous fluorescent Zn2+ sensors are available but most are unsuitable to detect physiological dynamics of cytosolic Zn2+. In this study, the authors present a genetically encoded sensor with sub-nanomolar sensitivity and show that Zn2 + is released from endolysosomal vesicles via TRPML1 in neurons.

    • Taylor F. Minckley
    • , Chen Zhang
    • , Dylan H. Fudge
    • , Anna M. Dischler
    • , Kate D. LeJeune
    • , Haoxing Xu
    •  & Yan Qin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Previous studies have suggested that being hungry causes people to make more selfish and less prosocial decisions. Here, the authors carried out a series of studies to test this claim and found that the effect of acute hunger was very weak at best.

    • Jan A. Häusser
    • , Christina Stahlecker
    • , Andreas Mojzisch
    • , Johannes Leder
    • , Paul A. M. Van Lange
    •  & Nadira S. Faber
  • Article
    | Open Access

    In the treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), comorbidities such as cachexia limit quality of life and survival. Here, the authors show TLR7/8 agonist R848 remodels host and tumour immune responses, promoting survival and attenuating cachexia in murine models of PDAC.

    • Katherine A. Michaelis
    • , Mason A. Norgard
    • , Xinxia Zhu
    • , Peter R. Levasseur
    • , Shamilene Sivagnanam
    • , Shannon M. Liudahl
    • , Kevin G. Burfeind
    • , Brennan Olson
    • , Katherine R. Pelz
    • , Diana M. Angeles Ramos
    • , H. Carlo Maurer
    • , Kenneth P. Olive
    • , Lisa M. Coussens
    • , Terry K. Morgan
    •  & Daniel L. Marks
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Bacteriophages can bind targets with only a few copies of a display peptide while most nanoparticles with thousands achieve poor binding. Here the authors form hierarchical arrangements of phage peptides to delivery siRNA across the blood brain barrier.

    • Lin-Ping Wu
    • , Davoud Ahmadvand
    • , Junan Su
    • , Arnaldur Hall
    • , Xiaolong Tan
    • , Z. Shadi Farhangrazi
    •  & S. Moein Moghimi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) are a powerful tool for neuroscience, but the standard DREADD ligand, CNO, has significant drawbacks. Here the authors report two novel high-potency DREADD ligands and a novel DREADD radiotracer for imaging purposes.

    • Jordi Bonaventura
    • , Mark A. G. Eldridge
    • , Feng Hu
    • , Juan L. Gomez
    • , Marta Sanchez-Soto
    • , Ara M. Abramyan
    • , Sherry Lam
    • , Matthew A. Boehm
    • , Christina Ruiz
    • , Mitchell R. Farrell
    • , Andrea Moreno
    • , Islam Mustafa Galal Faress
    • , Niels Andersen
    • , John Y. Lin
    • , Ruin Moaddel
    • , Patrick J. Morris
    • , Lei Shi
    • , David R. Sibley
    • , Stephen V. Mahler
    • , Sadegh Nabavi
    • , Martin G. Pomper
    • , Antonello Bonci
    • , Andrew G. Horti
    • , Barry J. Richmond
    •  & Michael Michaelides
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Nanosecond imaging techniques, such as fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), are limited by low efficiency of current detectors. Here, the authors implement an electro-optic approach using Pockels cells for wide-field image gating and demonstrate high throughput FLIM on standard camera sensors.

    • Adam J. Bowman
    • , Brannon B. Klopfer
    • , Thomas Juffmann
    •  & Mark A. Kasevich
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Diagnosing brain cancer is frequently difficult and requires specialist equipment. Here, the authors develop their previous attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy method and incoporate the use of disposable silicon wafers for diagnosing brain cancer using serum samples.

    • Holly J. Butler
    • , Paul M. Brennan
    • , James M. Cameron
    • , Duncan Finlayson
    • , Mark G. Hegarty
    • , Michael D. Jenkinson
    • , David S. Palmer
    • , Benjamin R. Smith
    •  & Matthew J. Baker
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is associated with severe neonatal morbidity. Here the authors show, mirroring the NEC phenotype, that IL-23 overexpression in neonates causes malabsorption and decreased expression of intestinal and pancreatic genes mediating food digestion and uptake through IL-22, which directly suppresses pancreatic cell differentiation.

    • Lili Chen
    • , Valentina Strohmeier
    • , Zhengxiang He
    • , Madhura Deshpande
    • , Jovani Catalan-Dibene
    • , Scott K. Durum
    • , Thomas M. Moran
    • , Thomas Kraus
    • , Huabao Xiong
    • , Jeremiah J. Faith
    • , Chhinder P. Sodhi
    • , David J. Hackam
    • , Sergio A. Lira
    •  & Glaucia C. Furtado
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, the authors study the interplay between the microbiome and faecal and blood metabolome, and how the microbiome interacts in the dialogue between these metabolic compartments, identifying a key role for microbial functions and underscoring their relevance for microbiome therapeutic strategies.

    • Alessia Visconti
    • , Caroline I. Le Roy
    • , Fabio Rosa
    • , Niccolò Rossi
    • , Tiphaine C. Martin
    • , Robert P. Mohney
    • , Weizhong Li
    • , Emanuele de Rinaldis
    • , Jordana T. Bell
    • , J. Craig Venter
    • , Karen E. Nelson
    • , Tim D. Spector
    •  & Mario Falchi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Post-mortem studies have suggested a possible reduction in mu-opioid receptor (MOR) density in people with schizophrenia. Here, the authors examined MOR in living patients with schizophrenia using PET imaging, and found local reductions of MOR compared to controls.

    • Abhishekh H. Ashok
    • , Jim Myers
    • , Tiago Reis Marques
    • , Eugenii A. Rabiner
    •  & Oliver D. Howes
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) expressing taste receptors reside in mucosal epithelia including the gingiva. Here the authors show that ablation of taste-sensing by SSCs leads to outgrowth of pathogenic oral bacteria and periodontitis, whereas bitter taste receptor stimulation promotes antimicrobial peptide production and ameliorates periodontitis.

    • Xin Zheng
    • , Marco Tizzano
    • , Kevin Redding
    • , Jinzhi He
    • , Xian Peng
    • , Peihua Jiang
    • , Xin Xu
    • , Xuedong Zhou
    •  & Robert F. Margolskee
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Understanding the fusion of nanocarriers with cell membranes is important to the design of effective drug delivery methods. Here, the authors report on a study into the fusion of cubosomes with model cell membranes underflow conditions and report on the binding kinetics.

    • Brendan P. Dyett
    • , Haitao Yu
    • , Jamie Strachan
    • , Calum J. Drummond
    •  & Charlotte E. Conn
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Vectors used in gene therapy for hemoglobin disorders carry globin in a reverse-orientation to prevent the loss of key regulatory elements by RNA splicing, but this limits their efficiency. Here, the authors develop a vector carrying β-globin in a forward orientation and show that it has improved titers and transduction efficiency in humanized mice and nonhuman primates.

    • Naoya Uchida
    • , Matthew M. Hsieh
    • , Lydia Raines
    • , Juan J. Haro-Mora
    • , Selami Demirci
    • , Aylin C. Bonifacino
    • , Allen E. Krouse
    • , Mark E. Metzger
    • , Robert E. Donahue
    •  & John F. Tisdale
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Changes in body mass index (BMI) during infancy and childhood follow a well-characterized pattern. Here, Helgeland et al. perform genome-wide association studies for BMI at 12 time points between birth and 8 years of age and find transient associations at the LEP and LEPR loci.

    • Øyvind Helgeland
    • , Marc Vaudel
    • , Petur B. Juliusson
    • , Oddgeir Lingaas Holmen
    • , Julius Juodakis
    • , Jonas Bacelis
    • , Bo Jacobsson
    • , Haakon Lindekleiv
    • , Kristian Hveem
    • , Rolv Terje Lie
    • , Gun Peggy Knudsen
    • , Camilla Stoltenberg
    • , Per Magnus
    • , Jørn V. Sagen
    • , Anders Molven
    • , Stefan Johansson
    •  & Pål Rasmus Njølstad
  • Article
    | Open Access

    In-depth characterization of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated CRISPR delivery is still lacking. Here, the authors show high levels of integration into Cas9-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs) in therapeutically relevant genes in vivo.

    • Killian S. Hanlon
    • , Benjamin P. Kleinstiver
    • , Sara P. Garcia
    • , Mikołaj P. Zaborowski
    • , Adrienn Volak
    • , Stefan E. Spirig
    • , Alissa Muller
    • , Alexander A. Sousa
    • , Shengdar Q. Tsai
    • , Niclas E. Bengtsson
    • , Camilla Lööv
    • , Martin Ingelsson
    • , Jeffrey S. Chamberlain
    • , David P. Corey
    • , Martin J. Aryee
    • , J. Keith Joung
    • , Xandra O. Breakefield
    • , Casey A. Maguire
    •  & Bence György
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Immunotherapy can induce antigen spreading of antitumor T cell response, which correlates with better outcomes. Here the authors show that tissue-resident memory CD8 T cells promote antigen spreading via lysing tumor cells and promoting their uptake and cross-presentation by dendritic cells, thereby eliciting de novo T cell responses.

    • Evelyn Menares
    • , Felipe Gálvez-Cancino
    • , Pablo Cáceres-Morgado
    • , Ehsan Ghorani
    • , Ernesto López
    • , Ximena Díaz
    • , Juan Saavedra-Almarza
    • , Diego A. Figueroa
    • , Eduardo Roa
    • , Sergio A. Quezada
    •  & Alvaro Lladser
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Control of composite nanoparticle topology can be difficult. Here the authors control the topological structure of mesoporous multipods by controlling the number of nucleation sites, and they used the resultant nanoparticles for bacterial adhesion, segregation and antibiotic delivery.

    • Tiancong Zhao
    • , Liang Chen
    • , Peiyuan Wang
    • , Benhao Li
    • , Runfeng Lin
    • , Areej Abdulkareem Al-Khalaf
    • , Wael N. Hozzein
    • , Fan Zhang
    • , Xiaomin Li
    •  & Dongyuan Zhao
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Controlled patterning of functionality within hydrogels typically involves complex chemistry. Here, the authors report on a simple competitive binding strategy using avidin and biotin analogs in an injectable biomaterial for spatiotemporally controlled presentation of biochemical stimuli to cells.

    • Tom Kamperman
    • , Michelle Koerselman
    • , Cindy Kelder
    • , Jan Hendriks
    • , João F. Crispim
    • , Xandra de Peuter
    • , Pieter J. Dijkstra
    • , Marcel Karperien
    •  & Jeroen Leijten
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Antibiotic resistance is a major global health challenge. Here, the authors report on a thermoresponsive delivery system for combined photothermal and antibiotic delivery with fluorescent tracking abilities and demonstrate application against antibiotic resistant bacteria in vitro and in vivo.

    • Guangchao Qing
    • , Xianxian Zhao
    • , Ningqiang Gong
    • , Jing Chen
    • , Xianlei Li
    • , Yaling Gan
    • , Yongchao Wang
    • , Zhen Zhang
    • , Yuxuan Zhang
    • , Weisheng Guo
    • , Yang Luo
    •  & Xing-Jie Liang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Patient drug regime compliance is a major issue; sustained release implants could address this. Here, the authors report on a phase inverted in situ forming implant of PLGA for the sustained release of antiretroviral drugs and optimize and demonstrate the release of 6 different drugs over a period of up to a year.

    • S. Rahima Benhabbour
    • , Martina Kovarova
    • , Clinton Jones
    • , Daijha J. Copeland
    • , Roopali Shrivastava
    • , Michael D. Swanson
    • , Craig Sykes
    • , Phong T. Ho
    • , Mackenzie L. Cottrell
    • , Anush Sridharan
    • , Samantha M. Fix
    • , Orrin Thayer
    • , Julie M. Long
    • , Daria J. Hazuda
    • , Paul A. Dayton
    • , Russell J. Mumper
    • , Angela D. M. Kashuba
    •  & J. Victor Garcia
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, Shah et al. perform a meta-analysis and show that people who live or work in agricultural land in Southeast Asia are on average 1.7 times more likely to be infected with a pathogen than controls, suggesting that agricultural land-use increases infectious disease risk.

    • Hiral A. Shah
    • , Paul Huxley
    • , Jocelyn Elmes
    •  & Kris A. Murray