Germinal centres

Definition

Germinal centres are specialized structures that are found in the follicles of secondary lymphoid tissues. Here, B cells are stimulated by antigen and T-helper cells to undergo maturation, leading to the generation of memory B cells and plasma cells that produce high-affinity antibodies.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research |

    Human follicular helper T cells engaging in synaptic interactions with germinal centre B cells release dopamine stored in chromogranin B+ granules, causing rapid externalization of ICOS ligand, which in turn enhances CD40L delivery to the synaptic cleft and synaptic contact, and results in an accelerated response.

    • Ilenia Papa
    • , David Saliba
    • , Maurilio Ponzoni
    • , Sonia Bustamante
    • , Pablo F. Canete
    • , Paula Gonzalez-Figueroa
    • , Hayley A. McNamara
    • , Salvatore Valvo
    • , Michele Grimbaldeston
    • , Rebecca A. Sweet
    • , Harpreet Vohra
    • , Ian A. Cockburn
    • , Michael Meyer-Hermann
    • , Michael L. Dustin
    • , Claudio Doglioni
    •  & Carola G. Vinuesa
    Nature 547, 318–323
  • Research | | open

    Follicular helper T (TFH) cells promote germinal centre (GC) response for efficient generation of protective antibodies during humoral immunity. Here the authors show that deficiency of the translational repressor, Capicua/CIC, enhances TFH differentiation and GC responses potentially via the derepression of Etv5.

    • Sungjun Park
    • , Seungwon Lee
    • , Choong-Gu Lee
    • , Guk Yeol Park
    • , Hyebeen Hong
    • , Jeon-Soo Lee
    • , Young Min Kim
    • , Sung Bae Lee
    • , Daehee Hwang
    • , Youn Soo Choi
    • , John D. Fryer
    • , Sin-Hyeog Im
    • , Seung-Woo Lee
    •  & Yoontae Lee
  • Research | | open

    Activated B cells differentiate into antibody-producing plasma cells in the germinal centre in secondary lymphoid organs. Here the authors show that this differentiation process and related transcription programs are modulated by the transcription factor CTCF, partly by suppressing the premature expression of Blimp-1.

    • Arantxa Pérez-García
    • , Ester Marina-Zárate
    • , Ángel F. Álvarez-Prado
    • , Jose M. Ligos
    • , Niels Galjart
    •  & Almudena R. Ramiro
  • Research |

    Germinal centers generate high-affinity memory B cells. Qi and colleagues identify a precursor of memory B cells in germinal centers and demonstrate that the cytokine IL-9-derived from follicular helper T cells is important for their development into full-fledged memory cells.

    • Yifeng Wang
    • , Jingwen Shi
    • , Jiacong Yan
    • , Zhengtao Xiao
    • , Xiaoxiao Hou
    • , Peiwen Lu
    • , Shiyue Hou
    • , Tianyang Mao
    • , Wanli Liu
    • , Yuanwu Ma
    • , Lianfeng Zhang
    • , Xuerui Yang
    •  & Hai Qi
    Nature Immunology 18, 921–930
  • Research |

    IgA is necessary for maintaining gut homeostasis, and its production depends on microbial sampling by the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Takayanagi and colleagues identify a novel population of mesenchymal cells in the GALT that control M cell differentiation and function of gut epithelium.

    • Kazuki Nagashima
    • , Shinichiro Sawa
    • , Takeshi Nitta
    • , Masanori Tsutsumi
    • , Tadashi Okamura
    • , Josef M Penninger
    • , Tomoki Nakashima
    •  & Hiroshi Takayanagi
    Nature Immunology 18, 675–682
  • Reviews |

    In this Review, the authors propose that disease-associated genetic variants modulate signalling downstream of B cell receptors, Toll-like receptors and cytokine receptors in B cells to drive autoimmune responses. This altered signalling favours a naive B cell repertoire that is skewed towards self-reactivity and promotes the peripheral activation of autoreactive B cell clones.

    • David J. Rawlings
    • , Genita Metzler
    • , Michelle Wray-Dutra
    •  & Shaun W. Jackson

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