Gene regulation

Definition

Gene regulation refers to the mechanisms that act to induce or repress the expression of a gene. These include structural and chemical changes to the genetic material, binding of proteins to specific DNA elements to regulate transcription, or mechanisms that modulate translation of mRNA.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research | | open

    Environmental adaptation is generally studied at the genomic level, but it may also be driven by transcriptional processes. Here, the authors investigate variation in gene expression and RNA editing across diverging populations of Drosophila melanogaster from two microclimates.

    • Arielle L. Yablonovitch
    • , Jeremy Fu
    • , Kexin Li
    • , Simpla Mahato
    • , Lin Kang
    • , Eugenia Rashkovetsky
    • , Abraham B. Korol
    • , Hua Tang
    • , Pawel Michalak
    • , Andrew C. Zelhof
    • , Eviatar Nevo
    •  & Jin Billy Li
  • Reviews |

    Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) do not overlap protein-coding genes, although some lincRNA genes have minimal coding potential and can include small open reading frames that encode functional peptides. lincRNA functions include RNA stabilization and transcription regulation and the remodelling of chromatin and genome architecture. Recent insights suggest that lincRNAs broadly serve to fine-tune the expression of neighbouring genes with remarkable tissue specificity.

    • Julia D. Ransohoff
    • , Yuning Wei
    •  & Paul A. Khavari
  • Research | | open

    The fungus Metarhizium robertsii can act as a saprophyte, plant symbiont and insect pathogen. Here, the authors show that the use of alternative transcription start sites controls the expression of membrane protein Mr-OPY2, which in turn modulates the saprophyte-to-pathogen transition.

    • Na Guo
    • , Ying Qian
    • , Qiangqiang Zhang
    • , Xiaoxuan Chen
    • , Guohong Zeng
    • , Xing Zhang
    • , Wubing Mi
    • , Chuan Xu
    • , Raymond J. St. Leger
    •  & Weiguo Fang
  • Research | | open

    The mitochondrial genome, being compressed to 16 kb, is an attractive model system to investigate how RNA-binding proteins chaperone mRNA lifecycles. Here the authors use RNase footprinting and PAR-CLIP to show that the LRPPRC–SLIRP complex stabilizes mRNA structures to expose sites required for translation and polyadenylation.

    • Stefan J. Siira
    • , Henrik Spåhr
    • , Anne-Marie J. Shearwood
    • , Benedetta Ruzzenente
    • , Nils-Göran Larsson
    • , Oliver Rackham
    •  & Aleksandra Filipovska
  • Research | | open

    The repertoire of tissue-specific distal regulators of gene transcription enhancers defines homeostasis or disease. Here, the authors reveal the enhancer and super-enhancer signature of vascular smooth muscle cells under normal and angiotensin II stimuli, providing new insight into the transcriptional regulation of vascular pathologies.

    • Sadhan Das
    • , Parijat Senapati
    • , Zhuo Chen
    • , Marpadga A. Reddy
    • , Rituparna Ganguly
    • , Linda Lanting
    • , Varun Mandi
    • , Anita Bansal
    • , Amy Leung
    • , Selena Zhang
    • , Ye Jia
    • , Xiwei Wu
    • , Dustin E. Schones
    •  & Rama Natarajan
  • Research | | open

    Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) edits adenosine to inosine. Here the authors, using parallel analysis of RNA secondary structure sequencing, provide evidence that ADAR1 induces sequence-context-dependent RNA secondary structures changes, often leading to stabilization of the RNA duplex.

    • Oz Solomon
    • , Ayelet Di Segni
    • , Karen Cesarkas
    • , Hagit T. Porath
    • , Victoria Marcu-Malina
    • , Orel Mizrahi
    • , Noam Stern-Ginossar
    • , Nitzan Kol
    • , Sarit Farage-Barhom
    • , Efrat Glick-Saar
    • , Yaniv Lerenthal
    • , Erez Y. Levanon
    • , Ninette Amariglio
    • , Ron Unger
    • , Itamar Goldstein
    • , Eran Eyal
    •  & Gidi Rechavi

News and Comment

  • Comments and Opinion |

    Genetic variants have been associated with myriad molecular phenotypes that provide new insight into the range of mechanisms underlying genetic traits and diseases. Identifying any particular genetic variant's cascade of effects, from molecule to individual, requires assaying multiple layers of molecular complexity. We introduce the Enhancing GTEx (eGTEx) project that extends the GTEx project to combine gene expression with additional intermediate molecular measurements on the same tissues to provide a resource for studying how genetic differences cascade through molecular phenotypes to impact human health.

    • eGTEx Project
    • , Barbara E Stranger
    • , Lori E Brigham
    • , Richard Hasz
    • , Marcus Hunter
    • , Christopher Johns
    • , Mark Johnson
    • , Gene Kopen
    • , William F Leinweber
    • , John T Lonsdale
    • , Alisa McDonald
    • , Bernadette Mestichelli
    • , Kevin Myer
    • , Brian Roe
    • , Michael Salvatore
    • , Saboor Shad
    • , Jeffrey A Thomas
    • , Gary Walters
    • , Michael Washington
    • , Joseph Wheeler
    • , Jason Bridge
    • , Barbara A Foster
    • , Bryan M Gillard
    • , Ellen Karasik
    • , Rachna Kumar
    • , Mark Miklos
    • , Michael T Moser
    • , Scott D Jewell
    • , Robert G Montroy
    • , Daniel C Rohrer
    • , Dana R Valley
    • , David A Davis
    • , Deborah C Mash
    • , Sarah E Gould
    • , Ping Guan
    • , Susan Koester
    • , A Roger Little
    • , Casey Martin
    • , Helen M Moore
    • , Abhi Rao
    • , Jeffery P Struewing
    • , Simona Volpi
    • , Kasper D Hansen
    • , Peter F Hickey
    • , Lindsay F Rizzardi
    • , Lei Hou
    • , Yaping Liu
    • , Benoit Molinie
    • , Yongjin Park
    • , Nicola Rinaldi
    • , Li Wang
    • , Nicholas Van Wittenberghe
    • , Melina Claussnitzer
    • , Ellen T Gelfand
    • , Qin Li
    • , Sandra Linder
    • , Rui Zhang
    • , Kevin S Smith
    • , Emily K Tsang
    • , Lin S Chen
    • , Kathryn Demanelis
    • , Jennifer A Doherty
    • , Farzana Jasmine
    • , Muhammad G Kibriya
    • , Lihua Jiang
    • , Shin Lin
    • , Meng Wang
    • , Ruiqi Jian
    • , Xiao Li
    • , Joanne Chan
    • , Daniel Bates
    • , Morgan Diegel
    • , Jessica Halow
    • , Eric Haugen
    • , Audra Johnson
    • , Rajinder Kaul
    • , Kristen Lee
    • , Matthew T Maurano
    • , Jemma Nelson
    • , Fidencio J Neri
    • , Richard Sandstrom
    • , Marian S Fernando
    • , Caroline Linke
    • , Meritxell Oliva
    • , Andrew Skol
    • , Fan Wu
    • , Joshua M Akey
    • , Andrew P Feinberg
    • , Jin Billy Li
    • , Brandon L Pierce
    • , John A Stamatoyannopoulos
    • , Hua Tang
    • , Kristin G Ardlie
    • , Manolis Kellis
    • , Michael P Snyder
    •  & Stephen B Montgomery
  • Editorial |

    This issue highlights a range of genetic techniques and cell biological models required to begin to understand the levels of long-range regulation of gene expression as it occurs during cell differentiation. Explanations based on the specificity of covalent modifications and binding interactions intersect with evidence for conjectured mechanisms of topological loop creation and maintenance by transcription and motile protein activities.