Galaxies and clusters

Definition

Galaxies and clusters are the ensembles of stars and other astronomical objects bound together by gravitational forces. Galaxies are ordered into galaxy groups, which are in turn organised into clusters. The Earth is in a galaxy called the Milky Way, which is in the Local Group in the Virgo Supercluster.

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Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research |

    High-resolution X-ray spectra show near-solar abundances of chromium, manganese and nickel with respect to iron in the Perseus cluster, suggesting that the progenitors of type Ia supernovae could be near- and sub-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs.

    • Hitomi Collaboration
    • , Felix Aharonian
    • , Hiroki Akamatsu
    • , Fumie Akimoto
    • , Steven W. Allen
    • , Lorella Angelini
    • , Marc Audard
    • , Hisamitsu Awaki
    • , Magnus Axelsson
    • , Aya Bamba
    • , Marshall W. Bautz
    • , Roger Blandford
    • , Laura W. Brenneman
    • , Gregory V. Brown
    • , Esra Bulbul
    • , Edward M. Cackett
    • , Maria Chernyakova
    • , Meng P. Chiao
    • , Paolo S. Coppi
    • , Elisa Costantini
    • , Jelle de Plaa
    • , Jan-Willem den Herder
    • , Chris Done
    • , Tadayasu Dotani
    • , Ken Ebisawa
    • , Megan E. Eckart
    • , Teruaki Enoto
    • , Yuichiro Ezoe
    • , Andrew C. Fabian
    • , Carlo Ferrigno
    • , Adam R. Foster
    • , Ryuichi Fujimoto
    • , Yasushi Fukazawa
    • , Akihiro Furuzawa
    • , Massimiliano Galeazzi
    • , Luigi C. Gallo
    • , Poshak Gandhi
    • , Margherita Giustini
    • , Andrea Goldwurm
    • , Liyi Gu
    • , Matteo Guainazzi
    • , Yoshito Haba
    • , Kouichi Hagino
    • , Kenji Hamaguchi
    • , Ilana M. Harrus
    • , Isamu Hatsukade
    • , Katsuhiro Hayashi
    • , Takayuki Hayashi
    • , Kiyoshi Hayashida
    • , Junko S. Hiraga
    • , Ann Hornschemeier
    • , Akio Hoshino
    • , John P. Hughes
    • , Yuto Ichinohe
    • , Ryo Iizuka
    • , Hajime Inoue
    • , Yoshiyuki Inoue
    • , Manabu Ishida
    • , Kumi Ishikawa
    • , Yoshitaka Ishisaki
    • , Masachika Iwai
    • , Jelle Kaastra
    • , Tim Kallman
    • , Tsuneyoshi Kamae
    • , Jun Kataoka
    • , Satoru Katsuda
    • , Nobuyuki Kawai
    • , Richard L. Kelley
    • , Caroline A. Kilbourne
    • , Takao Kitaguchi
    • , Shunji Kitamoto
    • , Tetsu Kitayama
    • , Takayoshi Kohmura
    • , Motohide Kokubun
    • , Katsuji Koyama
    • , Shu Koyama
    • , Peter Kretschmar
    • , Hans A. Krimm
    • , Aya Kubota
    • , Hideyo Kunieda
    • , Philippe Laurent
    • , Shiu-Hang Lee
    • , Maurice A. Leutenegger
    • , Olivier Limousine
    • , Michael Loewenstein
    • , Knox S. Long
    • , David Lumb
    • , Greg Madejski
    • , Yoshitomo Maeda
    • , Daniel Maier
    • , Kazuo Makishima
    • , Maxim Markevitch
    • , Hironori Matsumoto
    • , Kyoko Matsushita
    • , Dan McCammon
    • , Brian R. McNamara
    • , Missagh Mehdipour
    • , Eric D. Miller
    • , Jon M. Miller
    • , Shin Mineshige
    • , Kazuhisa Mitsuda
    • , Ikuyuki Mitsuishi
    • , Takuya Miyazawa
    • , Tsunefumi Mizuno
    • , Hideyuki Mori
    • , Koji Mori
    • , Koji Mukai
    • , Hiroshi Murakami
    • , Richard F. Mushotzky
    • , Takao Nakagawa
    • , Hiroshi Nakajima
    • , Takeshi Nakamori
    • , Shinya Nakashima
    • , Kazuhiro Nakazawa
    • , Kumiko K. Nobukawa
    • , Masayoshi Nobukawa
    • , Hirofumi Noda
    • , Hirokazu Odaka
    • , Takaya Ohashi
    • , Masanori Ohno
    • , Takashi Okajima
    • , Naomi Ota
    • , Masanobu Ozaki
    • , Frits Paerels
    • , Stéphane Paltani
    • , Robert Petre
    • , Ciro Pinto
    • , Frederick S. Porter
    • , Katja Pottschmidt
    • , Christopher S. Reynolds
    • , Samar Safi-Harb
    • , Shinya Saito
    • , Kazuhiro Sakai
    • , Toru Sasaki
    • , Goro Sato
    • , Kosuke Sato
    • , Rie Sato
    • , Makoto Sawada
    • , Norbert Schartel
    • , Peter J. Serlemitsos
    • , Hiromi Seta
    • , Megumi Shidatsu
    • , Aurora Simionescu
    • , Randall K. Smith
    • , Yang Soong
    • , Lukasz Stawarz
    • , Yasuharu Sugawara
    • , Satoshi Sugita
    • , Andrew Szymkowiak
    • , Hiroyasu Tajima
    • , Hiromitsu Takahashi
    • , Tadayuki Takahashi
    • , Shin'ichiro Takeda
    • , Yoh Takei
    • , Toru Tamagawa
    • , Takayuki Tamura
    • , Takaaki Tanaka
    • , Yasuo Tanaka
    • , Yasuyuki T. Tanaka
    • , Makoto S. Tashiro
    • , Yuzuru Tawara
    • , Yukikatsu Terada
    • , Yuichi Terashima
    • , Francesco Tombesi
    • , Hiroshi Tomida
    • , Yohko Tsuboi
    • , Masahiro Tsujimoto
    • , Hiroshi Tsunemi
    • , Takeshi Go Tsuru
    • , Hiroyuki Uchida
    • , Hideki Uchiyama
    • , Yasunobu Uchiyama
    • , Shutaro Ueda
    • , Yoshihiro Ueda
    • , Shin'ichiro Uno
    • , C. Megan Urry
    • , Eugenio Ursino
    • , Cor P. de Vries
    • , Shin Watanabe
    • , Norbert Werner
    • , Daniel R. Wik
    • , Dan R. Wilkins
    • , Brian J. Williams
    • , Shinya Yamada
    • , Hiroya Yamaguchi
    • , Kazutaka Yamaoka
    • , Noriko Y. Yamasaki
    • , Makoto Yamauchi
    • , Shigeo Yamauchi
    • , Tahir Yaqoob
    • , Yoichi Yatsu
    • , Daisuke Yonetoku
    • , Irina Zhuravleva
    •  & Abderahmen Zoghbi
  • Research |

    We calculate the continuous nanohertz gravitational-wave emission from individual supermassive black hole binaries and the gravitational-wave background they generate, which will be observable with pulsar timing arrays.

    • Chiara M. F. Mingarelli
    • , T. Joseph W. Lazio
    • , Alberto Sesana
    • , Jenny E. Greene
    • , Justin A. Ellis
    • , Chung-Pei Ma
    • , Steve Croft
    • , Sarah Burke-Spolaor
    •  & Stephen R. Taylor
  • Research |

    The discovery of the most energetic transient event to date is reported. Its spectroscopic properties and temporal evolution imply it is powered by shock interaction between expanding material and large quantities of surrounding dense matter.

    • E. Kankare
    • , R. Kotak
    • , S. Mattila
    • , P. Lundqvist
    • , M. J. Ward
    • , M. Fraser
    • , A. Lawrence
    • , S. J. Smartt
    • , W. P. S. Meikle
    • , A. Bruce
    • , J. Harmanen
    • , S. J. Hutton
    • , C. Inserra
    • , T. Kangas
    • , A. Pastorello
    • , T. Reynolds
    • , C. Romero-Cañizales
    • , K. W. Smith
    • , S. Valenti
    • , K. C. Chambers
    • , K. W. Hodapp
    • , M. E. Huber
    • , N. Kaiser
    • , R.-P. Kudritzki
    • , E. A. Magnier
    • , J. L. Tonry
    • , R. J. Wainscoat
    •  & C. Waters
  • Research |

    A galaxy at z ~ 1 is multiply imaged by strong lensing with different spatial resolutions. The properties of the giant stellar clumps within the galaxy depend on the resolution of the images. This observational effect must be considered in galactic models of star formation.

    • Antonio Cava
    • , Daniel Schaerer
    • , Johan Richard
    • , Pablo G. Pérez-González
    • , Miroslava Dessauges-Zavadsky
    • , Lucio Mayer
    •  & Valentina Tamburello
  • Research |

    This paper reports the detection of a high-redshift galaxy that may be more representative of ‘normal’ star-forming galaxies formed in the first billion years of the Universe than the extreme starbursts discovered to date.

    • Jorge A. Zavala
    • , Alfredo Montaña
    • , David H. Hughes
    • , Min S. Yun
    • , R. J. Ivison
    • , Elisabetta Valiante
    • , David Wilner
    • , Justin Spilker
    • , Itziar Aretxaga
    • , Stephen Eales
    • , Vladimir Avila-Reese
    • , Miguel Chávez
    • , Asantha Cooray
    • , Helmut Dannerbauer
    • , James S. Dunlop
    • , Loretta Dunne
    • , Arturo I. Gómez-Ruiz
    • , Michał J. Michałowski
    • , Gopal Narayanan
    • , Hooshang Nayyeri
    • , Ivan Oteo
    • , Daniel Rosa González
    • , David Sánchez-Argüelles
    • , F. Peter Schloerb
    • , Stephen Serjeant
    • , Matthew W. L. Smith
    • , Elena Terlevich
    • , Olga Vega
    • , Alan Villalba
    • , Paul van der Werf
    • , Grant W. Wilson
    •  & Milagros Zeballos

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