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Fungi are organisms that are grouped in a distinct kingdom within the eukaryotes. This kingdom includes diverse organisms ranging from microorganisms such as yeasts or moulds to large multicellular mushrooms.
Palmitoleic acid as well as fatty acids isolated from bacterial cultures can be used in axenic culture of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis to stimulate the formation of secondary spores that are able to colonize host plant roots.
A secreted effector from the plant pathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis has evolved to acquire a new function that contributes to the unique lifestyle of this species, highlighting the utility of using comparative genetic analyses to address current questions in plant–microorganism interactions.