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The authors use fiber-based fabrication to create flexible biocompatible probes with integrated optical, electrical and microfluidic capabilities. Functionality is demonstrated by characterizing the temporal dynamics of opsin expression following viral delivery, long-term tracking of individual neuron action potentials and modulation of neural circuits in the context of mouse behavior.
The protocol describes how to make transparent graphene neural electrodes for implantation onto the surface of the cerebral cortex in rodents and subsequent neural analysis by fluorescence microscopy, electrophysiology, optical coherence tomography, and optogenetics.