Environmental social sciences

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Robust estimates of either urban expansion worldwide or the effects of such phenomenon on terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP) are lacking. Here the authors used the new dataset of global land use to show that the global urban areas expanded largely between 2000 and 2010, which in turn reduced terrestrial NPP globally.

    • Xiaoping Liu
    • , Fengsong Pei
    • , Youyue Wen
    • , Xia Li
    • , Shaojian Wang
    • , Changjiang Wu
    • , Yiling Cai
    • , Jianguo Wu
    • , Jun Chen
    • , Kuishuang Feng
    • , Junguo Liu
    • , Klaus Hubacek
    • , Steven J. Davis
    • , Wenping Yuan
    • , Le Yu
    •  & Zhu Liu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Climate affects dynamics of infectious diseases, but the impact on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) epidemiology isn’t well understood. Here, Baker et al. model the influence of temperature, humidity and rainfall on RSV epidemiology in the USA and Mexico and predict impact of climate change on RSV dynamics.

    • Rachel E. Baker
    • , Ayesha S. Mahmud
    • , Caroline E. Wagner
    • , Wenchang Yang
    • , Virginia E. Pitzer
    • , Cecile Viboud
    • , Gabriel A. Vecchi
    • , C. Jessica E. Metcalf
    •  & Bryan T. Grenfell
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Air pollution can affect people’s emotional status and well-being. Here, the authors simulate fixed-scene images to show that under the atmospheric conditions in Beijing, negative emotions occur when air quality index of PM2.5 increases to approximately 150.

    • Yuan Li
    • , Dabo Guan
    • , Yanni Yu
    • , Stephen Westland
    • , Daoping Wang
    • , Jing Meng
    • , Xuejun Wang
    • , Kebin He
    •  & Shu Tao
  • Article
    | Open Access

    High-temperature solid oxide electrolysis cells are a promising technology for energy conversion, but higher current density is needed to increase efficiency. Here the authors design nanocomposite electrodes to improve electronic and ionic conductivity to achieve a high current density.

    • Hiroyuki Shimada
    • , Toshiaki Yamaguchi
    • , Haruo Kishimoto
    • , Hirofumi Sumi
    • , Yuki Yamaguchi
    • , Katsuhiro Nomura
    •  & Yoshinobu Fujishiro
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Resource impacts from the electrification of transport sector in terms of heavy-duty vehicles are understudied. Here the authors find that a mass deployment of plug-in electric vehicles in the heavy-duty segment at the global level can substantially increase the lithium demand.

    • Han Hao
    • , Yong Geng
    • , James E. Tate
    • , Feiqi Liu
    • , Kangda Chen
    • , Xin Sun
    • , Zongwei Liu
    •  & Fuquan Zhao
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Greenhouse gas mitigation can involve land-use changes that alter the habitat available for wildlife. Here, Ohashi et al. perform an integrated assessment showing that climate mitigation can be beneficial for global biodiversity but may entail local biodiversity losses where land-based mitigation is implemented.

    • Haruka Ohashi
    • , Tomoko Hasegawa
    • , Akiko Hirata
    • , Shinichiro Fujimori
    • , Kiyoshi Takahashi
    • , Ikutaro Tsuyama
    • , Katsuhiro Nakao
    • , Yuji Kominami
    • , Nobuyuki Tanaka
    • , Yasuaki Hijioka
    •  & Tetsuya Matsui
  • Article
    | Open Access

    There lacks a consistent and holistic evaluation of co-benefits of different mitigation pathways in studies on Integrated Assessment Models. Here the authors quantify environmental co-benefits and adverse side-effects of a portfolio of alternative power sector decarbonisation pathways and show that the scale of co-benefits as well as profiles of adverse side-effects depend strongly on technology choice.

    • Gunnar Luderer
    • , Michaja Pehl
    • , Anders Arvesen
    • , Thomas Gibon
    • , Benjamin L. Bodirsky
    • , Harmen Sytze de Boer
    • , Oliver Fricko
    • , Mohamad Hejazi
    • , Florian Humpenöder
    • , Gokul Iyer
    • , Silvana Mima
    • , Ioanna Mouratiadou
    • , Robert C. Pietzcker
    • , Alexander Popp
    • , Maarten van den Berg
    • , Detlef van Vuuren
    •  & Edgar G. Hertwich
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Fish consumption is considered to be the only significant dietary source of MeHg. Here the authors show that rice could also be a significant global dietary source, especially in South and Southeast Asia. International rice trade and joint ingestion of fish and rice could aggravate the MeHg exposure levels in many areas.

    • Maodian Liu
    • , Qianru Zhang
    • , Menghan Cheng
    • , Yipeng He
    • , Long Chen
    • , Haoran Zhang
    • , Hanlin Cao
    • , Huizhong Shen
    • , Wei Zhang
    • , Shu Tao
    •  & Xuejun Wang
  • Perspective
    | Open Access

    Parks have a previously unquantified economic value attributable to mental health, a health services value. Here, the authors proposed three methods to estimate this, and applied one of these methods to show that this value is at least US$6 trillion per annum worldwide.

    • Ralf Buckley
    • , Paula Brough
    • , Leah Hague
    • , Alienor Chauvenet
    • , Chris Fleming
    • , Elisha Roche
    • , Ernesta Sofija
    •  & Neil Harris
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Cycloalkenes are bulk petrochemicals that are currently obtained from fossil fuels. Here, the authors developed multi enzyme pathways in combination with a Ru-catalyzed metathesis reaction for the one-pot production of cyclopentene, cyclohexene, and cycloheptene from olive oil-derived intermediates.

    • Shuke Wu
    • , Yi Zhou
    • , Daniel Gerngross
    • , Markus Jeschek
    •  & Thomas R. Ward
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The role of solar and wind energy (SWE) in management of water-food-energy (WFE) nexus is largely neglected. Here the authors developed a trade-off frontier framework to quantify the water sustainability value of SWE and applied it in California, where they found that SWE penetration creates beneficial feedback for the WFE nexus by enhancing drought resilience and benefits groundwater sustainability over long run.

    • Xiaogang He
    • , Kairui Feng
    • , Xiaoyuan Li
    • , Amy B. Craft
    • , Yoshihide Wada
    • , Peter Burek
    • , Eric F. Wood
    •  & Justin Sheffield
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Improving residential building energy consumption (RBEC) efficiency is important. The authors here test whether the measure truly reflects efficiency, and found that RBEC per square meter decreases with the increase of the building area per household, indicating the dilution effect.

    • Jingxin Gao
    • , Xiaoyang Zhong
    • , Weiguang Cai
    • , Hong Ren
    • , Tengfei Huo
    • , Xia Wang
    •  & Zhifu Mi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Carbon dioxide emissions and air pollution are often assessed on a national or regional level, but little is known about the role of trade structures. Here, a combination of models shows that trade restrictions can lead to massive reduction of gross domestic product in most countries, but also to a reduction of emissions and pollution.

    • Jintai Lin
    • , Mingxi Du
    • , Lulu Chen
    • , Kuishuang Feng
    • , Yu Liu
    • , Randall V. Martin
    • , Jingxu Wang
    • , Ruijing Ni
    • , Yu Zhao
    • , Hao Kong
    • , Hongjian Weng
    • , Mengyao Liu
    • , Aaron van Donkelaar
    • , Qiuyu Liu
    •  & Klaus Hubacek
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Accurate estimates of global mean sea-level rise are important. Here the authors employ a new digital elevation model (DEM) utilizing neural networks and show that the new DEM more than triples the NASA SRTM-based estimates of current global population occupying land below projected sea levels in 2100, with more than 200 million people could be affected based on RCP4.5 and 2 degC of warming.

    • Scott A. Kulp
    •  & Benjamin H. Strauss
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential of organic methods is poorly understood. Here, the authors assess the GHG impact of a 100% shift to organic food production in England and Wales and find that direct GHG emissions are reduced with organic farming, but when increased land use abroad to allow for production shortfalls is factored in, GHG emissions are elevated well-above the baseline.

    • Laurence G. Smith
    • , Guy J. D. Kirk
    • , Philip J. Jones
    •  & Adrian G. Williams
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Indole oxidation represents a fundamental organic transformation delivering valuable nitrogen compounds. Here, the authors report a general halide catalysis protocol applied to three classes of oxidation reactions of indoles with oxone as a sustainable terminal oxidant.

    • Jun Xu
    • , Lixin Liang
    • , Haohao Zheng
    • , Yonggui Robin Chi
    •  & Rongbiao Tong
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Computable General Equilibrium models can hardly decouple economic growth and energy consumption while energy system models can hardly predict macroeconomic implications of energy system changes. Here the authors investigated the macroeconomic implications of consistently dealing with energy systems and the stability of further power generation and show that GDP losses were significantly lower than those in the conventional economic model by more than 50% in 2050, while industry and service sector energy consumption are the main factors causing these differences.

    • Shinichiro Fujimori
    • , Ken Oshiro
    • , Hiroto Shiraki
    •  & Tomoko Hasegawa
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The plant-by-plant retirement needs are not well-understood yet to achieve the rapid transition away from coal use. Here the authors found that operational lifetimes of existing units must be reduced to approximately 35 years to keep warming well below 2 °C or 20 years for 1.5 °C, even if no new capacity comes online.

    • Ryna Yiyun Cui
    • , Nathan Hultman
    • , Morgan R. Edwards
    • , Linlang He
    • , Arijit Sen
    • , Kavita Surana
    • , Haewon McJeon
    • , Gokul Iyer
    • , Pralit Patel
    • , Sha Yu
    • , Ted Nace
    •  & Christine Shearer
  • Review Article
    | Open Access

    Swarms of crustaceans called krill dominate Antarctic ecosystems, yet their influence on biogeochemical cycles remains a mystery. Here Cavan and colleagues review the role of krill in the Southern Ocean, and the impact of the krill fishery on ocean fertilisation and the carbon sink.

    • E. L. Cavan
    • , A. Belcher
    • , A. Atkinson
    • , S. L. Hill
    • , S. Kawaguchi
    • , S. McCormack
    • , B. Meyer
    • , S. Nicol
    • , L. Ratnarajah
    • , K. Schmidt
    • , D. K. Steinberg
    • , G. A. Tarling
    •  & P. W. Boyd
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Minimum mortality temperature (MMT) changes geographically and over time. Here, by analysing MMTs in 420 global locations during 1984-2018, the authors found that MMT is very close to the local most frequent temperature (MFT) in the same period, and the association between MFT and MMT is not changed when adjusted for lattitude and study year.

    • Qian Yin
    • , Jinfeng Wang
    • , Zhoupeng Ren
    • , Jie Li
    •  & Yuming Guo
  • Article
    | Open Access

    For high-energy lithium-sulfur batteries, a dense electrode with low porosity is desired to minimize electrolyte intake, parasitic weight, and cost. Here the authors show the impact of porosity on the performance of lithium-sulfur batteries and reveal the mechanism through analytical modeling.

    • Ning Kang
    • , Yuxiao Lin
    • , Li Yang
    • , Dongping Lu
    • , Jie Xiao
    • , Yue Qi
    •  & Mei Cai
  • Article
    | Open Access

    It is not clear which are the most effective mechanisms to achieve sustainable lifestyle behaviour. Here the authors study the impact of behavioural interventions excluding economic incentives by performing a large-scale meta-analysis and find that these interventions promote sustainable behaviours to a small degree in the short-term with no evidence of sustained positive effects once the intervention is completed.

    • Claudia F. Nisa
    • , Jocelyn J. Bélanger
    • , Birga M. Schumpe
    •  & Daiane G. Faller
  • Perspective
    | Open Access

    Existing approaches to research impact assessment fail to include a range of soft impacts. The authors present a 3-part impact mapping approach and apply it to an environmental initiative. They highlight that support for realising research impact is vital, and call on researchers to be open to new ideas and avenues for creating impact from their work.

    • Kirstie A. Fryirs
    • , Gary J. Brierley
    •  & Thom Dixon
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Considering air pollution-induced health risks from a consumption perspective is important. Here the authors evaluated the premature deaths resulting from household consumption across 30 Chinese provinces and find that rural households can cause a similar number of pollution-induced deaths as urban households despite a larger and wealthier urban population, due to the combustion of solid fuel.

    • Hongyan Zhao
    • , Guannan Geng
    • , Qiang Zhang
    • , Steven J. Davis
    • , Xin Li
    • , Yang Liu
    • , Liqun Peng
    • , Meng Li
    • , Bo Zheng
    • , Hong Huo
    • , Lin Zhang
    • , Daven K. Henze
    • , Zhifu Mi
    • , Zhu Liu
    • , Dabo Guan
    •  & Kebin He
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Some dams produce large amounts of GHGs and it is important to see whether future dams will satisfy sustainable energy goals. Here the authors estimate the range of GHG emission intensities expected for 351 proposed and 158 existing Amazon dams and find that existing Amazon hydropower reservoirs collectively emit 14 Tg CO2eq per year, and that if all proposed Amazon dams are built, annual emissions would increase 5-fold.

    • Rafael M. Almeida
    • , Qinru Shi
    • , Jonathan M. Gomes-Selman
    • , Xiaojian Wu
    • , Yexiang Xue
    • , Hector Angarita
    • , Nathan Barros
    • , Bruce R. Forsberg
    • , Roosevelt García-Villacorta
    • , Stephen K. Hamilton
    • , John M. Melack
    • , Mariana Montoya
    • , Guillaume Perez
    • , Suresh A. Sethi
    • , Carla P. Gomes
    •  & Alexander S. Flecker
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Irrigation buffers crop yields from extreme weather, but comes at environmental costs. Here the authors show that in India irrigation has improved wheat yield and reduced its sensitivity to heat, yet further increases are unlikely to offset the impact of warming.

    • Esha Zaveri
    •  & David B. Lobell
  • Article
    | Open Access

    It is unclear what opportunities for policy evaluation can be created by various independent Emission Trading Scheme (ETS). Here the authors presented the firm-level evidence of policy effects directly from emissions trading and differential program designs in China and find that China’s pilots largely induced low-carbon innovation of ETS firms without crowding out other technology innovation.

    • Junming Zhu
    • , Yichun Fan
    • , Xinghua Deng
    •  & Lan Xue
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Hydrogen peroxide can be produced alternatively using green inputs such as air, water, and sunlight but this requires a selective catalyst. Here the authors report an iron single atom catalyst that can convert oxygen into hydrogen peroxide with a selectivity of above 95% in both alkaline and neutral pH.

    • Kun Jiang
    • , Seoin Back
    • , Austin J. Akey
    • , Chuan Xia
    • , Yongfeng Hu
    • , Wentao Liang
    • , Diane Schaak
    • , Eli Stavitski
    • , Jens K. Nørskov
    • , Samira Siahrostami
    •  & Haotian Wang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Assessments of sea level rise risks depend on elevation data. Here, the authors present a new dataset on the Mekong Delta which shows it to have a much lower elevation (0.82 m above sea level) than previously thought – underlying principles may also imply major elevation uncertainties in other deltas.

    • P. S. J. Minderhoud
    • , L. Coumou
    • , G. Erkens
    • , H. Middelkoop
    •  & E. Stouthamer
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Triacylglycerides are naturally abundant and renewable feedstock, but their chemical transformation is hindered by their stability. Here, under Lewis acid catalysis, the authors report the selective alkyl C–O bond conversion of triglycerides into C–N bonds and even apply this efficient method to PET depolymerization.

    • Hua Liu
    • , Yi-Ling Zhu
    •  & Zhi Li
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide is attractive for obtaining multicarbon products, but conversion efficiency is low. Here the authors use copper complex materials for electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to ethanol and acetic acid with high efficiencies and activities.

    • Qinggong Zhu
    • , Xiaofu Sun
    • , Dexin Yang
    • , Jun Ma
    • , Xinchen Kang
    • , Lirong Zheng
    • , Jing Zhang
    • , Zhonghua Wu
    •  & Buxing Han
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Air pollution has become a major health risk in China. Here Zhang et al. report that maternal and neonatal exposure to particulate matter increases the risk of neonatal jaundice based on the study of 25,782 newborns born in China between 2014 and 2017.

    • Liqiang Zhang
    • , Weiwei Liu
    • , Kun Hou
    • , Jintai Lin
    • , Changqing Song
    • , Chenghu Zhou
    • , Bo Huang
    • , Xiaohua Tong
    • , Jinfeng Wang
    • , William Rhine
    • , Ying Jiao
    • , Ziwei Wang
    • , Ruijing Ni
    • , Mengyao Liu
    • , Liang Zhang
    • , Ziye Wang
    • , Yuebin Wang
    • , Xingang Li
    • , Suhong Liu
    •  & Yanhong Wang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Building retrofits offer enormous potential for energy reduction and must be designed with occupancy in mind. Here, the authors developed a method for estimating building occupancy at urban scale using mobile phone traces and they find that energy saving estimates differ by +1 to −15% for residential buildings and by −4 to −21% for commercial buildings.

    • Edward Barbour
    • , Carlos Cerezo Davila
    • , Siddharth Gupta
    • , Christoph Reinhart
    • , Jasleen Kaur
    •  & Marta C. González
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Heatwaves are expected to increase under climate change, and so are the associated deaths. Here the authors determine the regional high temperature thresholds for 27 metropolises in China and analyze the changes to heat-related mortality, showing that the additional global-warming temperature increase of 0.5°C, from 1.5°C to 2.0°C, will lead to tens of thousands of additional deaths, annually.

    • Yanjun Wang
    • , Anqian Wang
    • , Jianqing Zhai
    • , Hui Tao
    • , Tong Jiang
    • , Buda Su
    • , Jun Yang
    • , Guojie Wang
    • , Qiyong Liu
    • , Chao Gao
    • , Zbigniew W. Kundzewicz
    • , Mingjin Zhan
    • , Zhiqiang Feng
    •  & Thomas Fischer
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Nuclear reactors can be used for energy generation or for dangerous weapons and therefore their monitoring is crucial. Here the authors discuss detecting antineutrino from a nuclear reactor and use it for nuclear safeguards in a diversion scenario.

    • Christopher Stewart
    • , Abdalla Abou-Jaoude
    •  & Anna Erickson
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Residential solid fuel use constitutes a large amount of air pollution but has been gradually replaced by other cleaner energy during the past three decades. Here the authors investigated the contribution of rural residential sector to ambient PM2.5 pollution and the resulting climate forcing and health impacts, and find that the remaining large quantities of solid fuels used in rural households are still a major contributor to ambient air pollution despite of decrease in its pollutant emissions and relative contribution to PM2.5 due to the clean energy transition.

    • Guofeng Shen
    • , Muye Ru
    • , Wei Du
    • , Xi Zhu
    • , Qirui Zhong
    • , Yilin Chen
    • , Huizhong Shen
    • , Xiao Yun
    • , Wenjun Meng
    • , Junfeng Liu
    • , Hefa Cheng
    • , Jianying Hu
    • , Dabo Guan
    •  & Shu Tao
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Existing studies on the economic feasibility of energy storage are system-specific without considering the decarbonisation of electricity production or impacts of GHG taxes. Here the authors applied an optimization model to investigate the economic viability of nice selected energy storage technologies in California and found that renewable curtailment and GHG reductions highly depend on capital costs of energy storage.

    • Maryam Arbabzadeh
    • , Ramteen Sioshansi
    • , Jeremiah X. Johnson
    •  & Gregory A. Keoleian
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The empirical consequences of human explorative strategies are not fully understood. Here the authors find that during undisturbed conditions, more-explorative vessels gained no performance advantage while during a major disturbance event, explorers benefited significantly from less-impacted revenues and were also more likely to continue fishing.

    • Shay O’Farrell
    • , James N. Sanchirico
    • , Orr Spiegel
    • , Maxime Depalle
    • , Alan C. Haynie
    • , Steven A. Murawski
    • , Larry Perruso
    •  & Andrew Strelcheck
  • Article
    | Open Access

    To trace the sources of Black Carbon being transported into the Tibetan Plateau is crucial for guiding an effective mitigation strategy. Here the authors utilized the adjoint of the Goddard Earth Observing System-Chem model and find that international trade aggravates the BC pollution over the HTP glacier regions and may cause significant climate change.

    • Kan Yi
    • , Jing Meng
    • , Haozhe Yang
    • , Cenlin He
    • , Daven K. Henze
    • , Junfeng Liu
    • , Dabo Guan
    • , Zhu Liu
    • , Lin Zhang
    • , Xi Zhu
    • , Yanli Cheng
    •  & Shu Tao
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Direct Air Carbon Capture and Storage (DACCS) is not considered in Integrated Assessment Models. Here the authors make comparisons using multi-model regarding the role of DACCS in 1.5 and 2 degree scenarios and find that DACCS allows to postpone mitigation and reduce the climate policy costs.

    • Giulia Realmonte
    • , Laurent Drouet
    • , Ajay Gambhir
    • , James Glynn
    • , Adam Hawkes
    • , Alexandre C. Köberle
    •  & Massimo Tavoni
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The impact of nitrogen availability on carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems under climate change is understudied. Here the authors project that increases in N availability over the 21st century associated with warmer soils and the legacy of past N fertiliser use on abandoned croplands will be the primary drivers of a 21st century net carbon sink in Northern Eurasia.

    • David W. Kicklighter
    • , Jerry M. Melillo
    • , Erwan Monier
    • , Andrei P. Sokolov
    •  & Qianlai Zhuang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The increase in needs for agricultural commodities is projected to outpace the growth of farmland production globally, leading to high pressure on farming systems in the next decades. Here, the authors investigate the future impact of cropland expansion and intensification on agricultural markets and biodiversity, and suggest the need for balancing agricultural production with conservation goals.

    • Florian Zabel
    • , Ruth Delzeit
    • , Julia M. Schneider
    • , Ralf Seppelt
    • , Wolfram Mauser
    •  & Tomáš Václavík
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Human disturbance of peatland environments due to geological exploration activities can significantly alter peatland greenhouse gas exchange. Here, the authors study peatland disturbance in Alberta, Canada, and estimate that induced methane emissions are approximately 4.4–5.1 kt higher per year than in undisturbed conditions.

    • Maria Strack
    • , Shari Hayne
    • , Julie Lovitt
    • , Gregory J. McDermid
    • , Mir Mustafizur Rahman
    • , Saraswati Saraswati
    •  & Bin Xu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Alcohol oxidation to carbonyl compounds is a very useful functional group transformation in organic synthesis. Here, the authors perform the direct electrochemical oxidation of various alcohols to the corresponding ketones in a continuous-flow reactor without external oxidants, base or mediators.

    • Dan Wang
    • , Pan Wang
    • , Shengchun Wang
    • , Yi-Hung Chen
    • , Heng Zhang
    •  & Aiwen Lei
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Spatial distribution has been rarely studied in global disaster risk models. Here the authors address damaged networked infrastructure at the asset level for a wider range of hazards and reveal a global Expected Annual Damages ranging from $3.1 to 22 billion with a particular vulnerability of transport infrastructure in Small Island Developing States.

    • E. E. Koks
    • , J. Rozenberg
    • , C. Zorn
    • , M. Tariverdi
    • , M. Vousdoukas
    • , S. A. Fraser
    • , J. W. Hall
    •  & S. Hallegatte
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Future energy demand maybe induced by climate change and subject to uncertainties arising from different extent of climate change and socioeconomic development. Here the authors follow a top-down approach and combined the recently developed socio-economic and climate scenarios and found that across 210 scenarios, moderate warming increases global climate-exposed energy demand before adaptation by 25–58% between 2010 and 2050.

    • Bas J. van Ruijven
    • , Enrica De Cian
    •  & Ian Sue Wing
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The environmental impacts of increasing wastewater management are poorly understood. Here, the authors simulate impacts for 173 countries between 1990 and 2050; despite the development of wastewater infrastructure, they identify hotspots of unexpected detrimental effects which are shifting from Asia to Africa.

    • Xu Wang
    • , Glen Daigger
    • , Wim de Vries
    • , Carolien Kroeze
    • , Min Yang
    • , Nan-Qi Ren
    • , Junxin Liu
    •  & David Butler
  • Article
    | Open Access

    It is important to understand how physical changes in Polar regions influence social systems and populations. Here the authors develop an Arctic Climate Change Vulnerability Index focusing on aviation and marine infrastructure in future climate scenarios and show that transportation system vulnerability varies across the region depending on modeled hazards and transportation infrastructure types.

    • Nathan S. Debortoli
    • , Dylan G. Clark
    • , James D. Ford
    • , Jesse S. Sayles
    •  & Emilia P. Diaconescu