Environmental sciences

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Earth’s carbon cycle and oceanic magnesium cycle are controlled by processes such as weathering, volcanism and precipitation of carbonates, such as dolomite. Here, the authors contradict the view that modern dolomite formation is rare and suggest instead that dolomite accounts for ~40–60% of the global oceanic Mg output in the last 20 Ma.

    • Netta Shalev
    • , Tomaso R. R. Bontognali
    • , C. Geoffrey Wheat
    •  & Derek Vance
  • Review Article
    | Open Access

    The recent collapses of ice shelves in Antarctica due to warming make it essential to understand past ice shelf conditions and mechanisms. Here Smith and colleagues review the latest progress in deciphering the geological imprint of Antarctic ice shelves via sediments, landforms and proxy indicators.

    • James A. Smith
    • , Alastair G. C. Graham
    • , Alix L. Post
    • , Claus-Dieter Hillenbrand
    • , Philip J. Bart
    •  & Ross D. Powell
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Carbon dioxide removal technologies are often touted as a potential strategy to combat ocean acidification. However, the authors show here that these strategies are only effective when included as part of aggressive and rapid climate-action, undermining the idea of geoengineering as a panacea.

    • M. Hofmann
    • , S. Mathesius
    • , E. Kriegler
    • , D. P. van Vuuren
    •  & H. J. Schellnhuber
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Robust estimates of either urban expansion worldwide or the effects of such phenomenon on terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP) are lacking. Here the authors used the new dataset of global land use to show that the global urban areas expanded largely between 2000 and 2010, which in turn reduced terrestrial NPP globally.

    • Xiaoping Liu
    • , Fengsong Pei
    • , Youyue Wen
    • , Xia Li
    • , Shaojian Wang
    • , Changjiang Wu
    • , Yiling Cai
    • , Jianguo Wu
    • , Jun Chen
    • , Kuishuang Feng
    • , Junguo Liu
    • , Klaus Hubacek
    • , Steven J. Davis
    • , Wenping Yuan
    • , Le Yu
    •  & Zhu Liu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Some of Earth’s earliest continental crust has been previously inferred to have formed from partial melting of hydrated mafic crust at pressures above 1.5 GPa (more than 50 km deep), pressures typically not reached in post-Archean continental crust. Here, the authors show that such high pressure signatures can result from melting of mantle sources rather than melting of crust, and they suggest there is a lack of evidence that Earth’s earliest crust melted at depths significantly below 40 km.

    • Robert H. Smithies
    • , Yongjun Lu
    • , Tim E. Johnson
    • , Christopher L. Kirkland
    • , Kevin F. Cassidy
    • , David C. Champion
    • , David R. Mole
    • , Ivan Zibra
    • , Klaus Gessner
    • , Jyotindra Sapkota
    • , Matthew C. De Paoli
    •  & Marc Poujol
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Lithium use in electronics has increased dramatically, but the environmental impacts are poorly understood. Here the authors show lithium in river and tap water in South Korea is coincident with population density, and that waste water treatment is ineffective at scrubbing this potential toxin.

    • Hye-Bin Choi
    • , Jong-Sik Ryu
    • , Woo-Jin Shin
    •  & Nathalie Vigier
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Anoxic lake sediments are thought to be the major source of the high amount of methane emitted from freshwaters. Here Günthel and colleagues find unexpected quantities of this greenhouse gas are produced in lake surfaces, indicating an overlooked global importance from oxygenated sources.

    • Marco Günthel
    • , Daphne Donis
    • , Georgiy Kirillin
    • , Danny Ionescu
    • , Mina Bizic
    • , Daniel F. McGinnis
    • , Hans-Peter Grossart
    •  & Kam W. Tang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Low seismic velocity anomalies reveal a complex scenario of plume upwellings from a deep thermo-chemical anomaly (superplume) in the mantle below the East African Rift, however, geophysical observations alone are insufficient to identify the extent of plume influence on the magmatism along the rift. Here, the authors use Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data to show that superplume mantle underlies the entire rift system, from the Red Sea to the Indian Ocean south of Mozambique.

    • John M. O’Connor
    • , Wilfried Jokat
    • , Marcel Regelous
    • , Klaudia F. Kuiper
    • , Daniel P. Miggins
    •  & Anthony A. P. Koppers
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Air pollution can affect people’s emotional status and well-being. Here, the authors simulate fixed-scene images to show that under the atmospheric conditions in Beijing, negative emotions occur when air quality index of PM2.5 increases to approximately 150.

    • Yuan Li
    • , Dabo Guan
    • , Yanni Yu
    • , Stephen Westland
    • , Daoping Wang
    • , Jing Meng
    • , Xuejun Wang
    • , Kebin He
    •  & Shu Tao
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Snow cover can affect the Arctic sea-ice system in different ways. Here authors study the relationship between cyclone activity and the seasonal build-up of snow on Arctic sea ice at a multi-decadal and basin-wide scale and find that 44% of the variability in monthly snow accumulation was controlled by cyclone snowfall and 29% by sea-ice freeze-up with strong spatio-temporal differences.

    • M. A. Webster
    • , C. Parker
    • , L. Boisvert
    •  & R. Kwok
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The links between plate tectonics and deep mantle structure remain unclear. Here, the authors demonstrate that transition elements (Ni, Cr, and Fe/Mn) in basaltic rocks can be used as a tool to trace plume-related magmatism through Earth history, and their results indicate the presence of a direct relationship between the intensity of plume magmatism and the supercontinent cycle.

    • Hamed Gamal EL Dien
    • , Luc S. Doucet
    •  & Zheng-Xiang Li
  • Article
    | Open Access

    There lacks a consistent and holistic evaluation of co-benefits of different mitigation pathways in studies on Integrated Assessment Models. Here the authors quantify environmental co-benefits and adverse side-effects of a portfolio of alternative power sector decarbonisation pathways and show that the scale of co-benefits as well as profiles of adverse side-effects depend strongly on technology choice.

    • Gunnar Luderer
    • , Michaja Pehl
    • , Anders Arvesen
    • , Thomas Gibon
    • , Benjamin L. Bodirsky
    • , Harmen Sytze de Boer
    • , Oliver Fricko
    • , Mohamad Hejazi
    • , Florian Humpenöder
    • , Gokul Iyer
    • , Silvana Mima
    • , Ioanna Mouratiadou
    • , Robert C. Pietzcker
    • , Alexander Popp
    • , Maarten van den Berg
    • , Detlef van Vuuren
    •  & Edgar G. Hertwich
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Aerosol-cloud interactions are a large source of uncertainty in radiative forcing estimates. Here, the authors show that the radiative effects of clouds are influenced by a combination of aerosol particle distribution, environmental conditions and atmosphere dynamics.

    • S. J. Lowe
    • , D. G. Partridge
    • , J. F. Davies
    • , K. R. Wilson
    • , D. Topping
    •  & I. Riipinen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Deciphering the origin, age, and composition of deep marine organic carbon remains a challenge for understanding the dynamics of the marine carbon cycle. Here, the authors identify (sub)micron-sized graphite emanating from both high and low temperature hydrothermal vents along the East Pacific Rise, and suggest graphite is a source of old carbon in the deep ocean.

    • Emily R. Estes
    • , Debora Berti
    • , Nicole R. Coffey
    • , Michael F. Hochella Jr.
    • , Andrew S. Wozniak
    •  & George W. Luther III
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Fish consumption is considered to be the only significant dietary source of MeHg. Here the authors show that rice could also be a significant global dietary source, especially in South and Southeast Asia. International rice trade and joint ingestion of fish and rice could aggravate the MeHg exposure levels in many areas.

    • Maodian Liu
    • , Qianru Zhang
    • , Menghan Cheng
    • , Yipeng He
    • , Long Chen
    • , Haoran Zhang
    • , Hanlin Cao
    • , Huizhong Shen
    • , Wei Zhang
    • , Shu Tao
    •  & Xuejun Wang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Global soil carbon dynamics are regulated by the modification of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition by plant carbon input (priming effect). Here, the authors collect soil data along a 2200 km grassland transect on the Tibetan Plateau and find that SOM stability is the major control on priming effect.

    • Leiyi Chen
    • , Li Liu
    • , Shuqi Qin
    • , Guibiao Yang
    • , Kai Fang
    • , Biao Zhu
    • , Yakov Kuzyakov
    • , Pengdong Chen
    • , Yunping Xu
    •  & Yuanhe Yang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Chromian-spinel from mafic-ultramafic rocks is used as a reliable geotectonic and mantle melting indicator. Here, the authors argue that this only works partially – it can be used to assess information on mantle metasomatic processes but not petrogenesis.

    • Hamed Gamal El Dien
    • , Shoji Arai
    • , Luc-Serge Doucet
    • , Zheng-Xiang Li
    • , Youngwoo Kil
    • , Denis Fougerouse
    • , Steven M. Reddy
    • , David W. Saxey
    •  & Mohamed Hamdy
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Rivers are thought to be the largest source of the recalcitrant and abundant black carbon in the ocean. Here, Wagner and colleagues find distinct pools of black carbon between rivers and the open ocean, challenging the long-held assumption that marine black carbon is of terrestrial origin.

    • Sasha Wagner
    • , Jay Brandes
    • , Robert G. M. Spencer
    • , Kun Ma
    • , Sarah Z. Rosengard
    • , Jose Mauro S. Moura
    •  & Aron Stubbins
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The elevation and high heat flow of Southern South Africa has controversially been attributed to a mantle plume. Here, the authors link degassed CO2 to a non-degassed mantle source rather than the convecting upper mantle, confirming plume-related mantle melting.

    • S. M. V. Gilfillan
    • , D. Györe
    • , S. Flude
    • , G. Johnson
    • , C. E. Bond
    • , N. Hicks
    • , R. Lister
    • , D. G. Jones
    • , Y. Kremer
    • , R. S. Haszeldine
    •  & F. M. Stuart
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Forest soil is known to be a source of the greenhouse gas N2O, but the impact of what is planted in that soil has long been overlooked. Here Machacova and colleagues quantify seasonal N2O fluxes from common boreal tree species in Finland, finding that all trees are net sources of this gas.

    • Katerina Machacova
    • , Elisa Vainio
    • , Otmar Urban
    •  & Mari Pihlatie
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Current projections on rice production do not consider the coupled stresses of impending climate change and the toxin arsenic in paddy soils. Here, the authors examined potential compounding impacts of soil arsenic and a changing climate on rice production and show that climate-induced changes in soil arsenic behaviour and plant response will lead to currently unforeseen losses in paddy rice grain productivity and quality.

    • E. Marie Muehe
    • , Tianmei Wang
    • , Carolin F. Kerl
    • , Britta Planer-Friedrich
    •  & Scott Fendorf
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Iron is crucial for marine photosynthesis, but observational constraints on the magnitude of key iron cycle processes are lacking. Here the authors use a range of observational data sets to demonstrate that the balance between iron re-supply and removal in the subsurface controls upper ocean iron limitation.

    • Alessandro Tagliabue
    • , Andrew R. Bowie
    • , Timothy DeVries
    • , Michael J. Ellwood
    • , William M. Landing
    • , Angela Milne
    • , Daniel C. Ohnemus
    • , Benjamin S. Twining
    •  & Philip W. Boyd
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Carbon dioxide emissions and air pollution are often assessed on a national or regional level, but little is known about the role of trade structures. Here, a combination of models shows that trade restrictions can lead to massive reduction of gross domestic product in most countries, but also to a reduction of emissions and pollution.

    • Jintai Lin
    • , Mingxi Du
    • , Lulu Chen
    • , Kuishuang Feng
    • , Yu Liu
    • , Randall V. Martin
    • , Jingxu Wang
    • , Ruijing Ni
    • , Yu Zhao
    • , Hao Kong
    • , Hongjian Weng
    • , Mengyao Liu
    • , Aaron van Donkelaar
    • , Qiuyu Liu
    •  & Klaus Hubacek
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Diamonds can give us clues to the processes regulating deep carbon transport within the Earth. Here, the author discovers evidence from diamond coatings that organic compounds exist at great depth in Earth’s interior, and furthermore, that organic molecules may provide scaffolds for diamond nucleation and growth.

    • Maria Luce Frezzotti
  • Article
    | Open Access

    There still lacks a forecast system that inform end-users regarding the drought impacts, which will be however important for drought management. Here the authors assess the feasibility of forecasting drought impacts using machine-learning and confirm that models, which were built with sufficient amount of reported drought impacts in a certain sector, are able to forecast drought impacts a few months ahead.

    • Samuel J. Sutanto
    • , Melati van der Weert
    • , Niko Wanders
    • , Veit Blauhut
    •  & Henny A. J. Van Lanen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The loss of anomalous sulfur isotope compositions from sedimentary rocks has been considered a symptom of permanent atmospheric oxygenation. Here the authors show sulfur and oxygen isotope evidence from < 2.31 Ga sedimentary barium sulphates (barites) from the Turee Creek Basin, W. Australia, demonstrating the influence of local non-atmospheric processes on anomalous sulfur isotope signals.

    • B. A. Killingsworth
    • , P. Sansjofre
    • , P. Philippot
    • , P. Cartigny
    • , C. Thomazo
    •  & S. V. Lalonde
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Gale Crater on Mars has been demonstrated to have once hosted water, but its chemistry is still under debate. Here the authors use mineralogical rock compositions and show the once saline character of Gale Crater—a result of warmer climate periods during the Hesperian period.

    • Keisuke Fukushi
    • , Yasuhito Sekine
    • , Hiroshi Sakuma
    • , Koki Morida
    •  & Robin Wordsworth
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Freshwater systems are important components of the carbon cycle, but the extent of their role in CO2 fluxes is poorly understood. Here Horgby and colleagues show that mountain streams are a surprisingly large source of CO2 to the atmosphere, with annual emissions that belie their spatial extent.

    • Åsa Horgby
    • , Pier Luigi Segatto
    • , Enrico Bertuzzo
    • , Ronny Lauerwald
    • , Bernhard Lehner
    • , Amber J. Ulseth
    • , Torsten W. Vennemann
    •  & Tom J. Battin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Membrane use as a cathode is a common measure to retard fouling in anaerobic electrochemical membrane bioreactors, but this cannot avoid the fouling growth. Here the authors report on using membranes as anodes to create equilibrium between fouling and oxidation to maintain stable operation.

    • Qilin Yu
    •  & Yaobin Zhang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Diatoms drive biogeochemical cycling of aluminum by incorporating this element into their shells, but this process has not been quantified in freshwater systems. Here the authors quantify diatom-mediated aluminum fluxes in lakes and determine that they rival the aluminum sink in the global ocean.

    • Dong Liu
    • , Peng Yuan
    • , Qian Tian
    • , Hongchang Liu
    • , Liangliang Deng
    • , Yaran Song
    • , Junming Zhou
    • , Dusan Losic
    • , Jieyu Zhou
    • , Hongzhe Song
    • , Haozhe Guo
    •  & Wenxiao Fan
  • Article
    | Open Access

    This study seeks to tackle the question of why intermediate magmatic rock compositions are poorly represented on the Earth’s surface. The authors do so by tracking the evolution of the physical behaviour of immiscible Fe-rich liquids within a sample suite from the lava lake on the Kilauea Iki volcano, Hawaii.

    • Victoria C. Honour
    • , Marian B. Holness
    • , Bernard Charlier
    • , Sandra C. Piazolo
    • , Olivier Namur
    • , Ty J. Prosa
    • , Isabelle Martin
    • , Rosalind T. Helz
    • , John Maclennan
    •  & Marlon M. Jean
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential of organic methods is poorly understood. Here, the authors assess the GHG impact of a 100% shift to organic food production in England and Wales and find that direct GHG emissions are reduced with organic farming, but when increased land use abroad to allow for production shortfalls is factored in, GHG emissions are elevated well-above the baseline.

    • Laurence G. Smith
    • , Guy J. D. Kirk
    • , Philip J. Jones
    •  & Adrian G. Williams
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Fractured rocks of impact craters have been suggested to be suitable hosts for deep microbial communities on Earth, and potentially other terrestrial planets, yet direct evidence remains elusive. Here, the authors show that the Siljan impact structure is host to long-term deep methane-cycling microbial activity.

    • Henrik Drake
    • , Nick M. W. Roberts
    • , Christine Heim
    • , Martin J. Whitehouse
    • , Sandra Siljeström
    • , Ellen Kooijman
    • , Curt Broman
    • , Magnus Ivarsson
    •  & Mats E. Åström
  • Review Article
    | Open Access

    Swarms of crustaceans called krill dominate Antarctic ecosystems, yet their influence on biogeochemical cycles remains a mystery. Here Cavan and colleagues review the role of krill in the Southern Ocean, and the impact of the krill fishery on ocean fertilisation and the carbon sink.

    • E. L. Cavan
    • , A. Belcher
    • , A. Atkinson
    • , S. L. Hill
    • , S. Kawaguchi
    • , S. McCormack
    • , B. Meyer
    • , S. Nicol
    • , L. Ratnarajah
    • , K. Schmidt
    • , D. K. Steinberg
    • , G. A. Tarling
    •  & P. W. Boyd
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The geodynamic evolution of mountain ranges can be reconstructed using the pressure recorded by minerals in metamorphic rocks, under the key assumption that rock pressure is lithostatic. Here, the authors challenge the lithostatic pressure paradigm by showing that there can be significant outcrop-scale pressure gradients due to compression- and reaction-induced stress.

    • Cindy Luisier
    • , Lukas Baumgartner
    • , Stefan M. Schmalholz
    • , Guillaume Siron
    •  & Torsten Vennemann
  • Matters Arising
    | Open Access

    • Alan G. Hogg
    • , Colin J. N. Wilson
    • , David J. Lowe
    • , Chris S. M. Turney
    • , Paul White
    • , Andrew M. Lorrey
    • , Sturt W. Manning
    • , Jonathan G. Palmer
    • , Sarah Bury
    • , Julie Brown
    • , John Southon
    •  & Fiona Petchey
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Iron fertilisation of the high latitude oceans is a well-established biological mechanism to explain the ice age drawdown of atmospheric CO2, yet modelling has so far struggled to account for a sufficient drawdown via this mechanism. Here, the authors propose that N2 fixers, which inhabit the lower latitude ocean, made a significant contribution to CO2 drawdown and so amplified the global response to iron fertilisation during ice ages.

    • Pearse J. Buchanan
    • , Zanna Chase
    • , Richard J. Matear
    • , Steven J. Phipps
    •  & Nathaniel L. Bindoff
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The ocean emits the greenhouse gas methane, but its vastness renders estimations challenging. Here the authors use machine learning to map global ocean methane fluxes, finding a disproportionate contribution from shallow coastal waters, and a link between primary production and methane cycling.

    • Thomas Weber
    • , Nicola A. Wiseman
    •  & Annette Kock
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Marine chemistry during the Early Earth (over 2.7 billion years ago) is commonly inferred to have been inorganically sulfate-reducing. Here, the authors argue that organic sulfur cycling may have played a previously unrecognized, yet important, role in the formation of ancient Archean marine sulfides.

    • Mojtaba Fakhraee
    •  & Sergei Katsev
  • Perspective
    | Open Access

    Existing approaches to research impact assessment fail to include a range of soft impacts. The authors present a 3-part impact mapping approach and apply it to an environmental initiative. They highlight that support for realising research impact is vital, and call on researchers to be open to new ideas and avenues for creating impact from their work.

    • Kirstie A. Fryirs
    • , Gary J. Brierley
    •  & Thom Dixon
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Policies aiming to preserve vegetated coastal ecosystems (VCE) to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions require national assessments of blue carbon resources. Here the authors assessed organic carbon storage in VCE across Australian and the potential annual CO2 emission benefits of VCE conservation and find that Australia contributes substantially the carbon stored in VCE globally.

    • Oscar Serrano
    • , Catherine E. Lovelock
    • , Trisha B. Atwood
    • , Peter I. Macreadie
    • , Robert Canto
    • , Stuart Phinn
    • , Ariane Arias-Ortiz
    • , Le Bai
    • , Jeff Baldock
    • , Camila Bedulli
    • , Paul Carnell
    • , Rod M. Connolly
    • , Paul Donaldson
    • , Alba Esteban
    • , Carolyn J. Ewers Lewis
    • , Bradley D. Eyre
    • , Matthew A. Hayes
    • , Pierre Horwitz
    • , Lindsay B. Hutley
    • , Christopher R. J. Kavazos
    • , Jeffrey J. Kelleway
    • , Gary A. Kendrick
    • , Kieryn Kilminster
    • , Anna Lafratta
    • , Shing Lee
    • , Paul S. Lavery
    • , Damien T. Maher
    • , Núria Marbà
    • , Pere Masque
    • , Miguel A. Mateo
    • , Richard Mount
    • , Peter J. Ralph
    • , Chris Roelfsema
    • , Mohammad Rozaimi
    • , Radhiyah Ruhon
    • , Cristian Salinas
    • , Jimena Samper-Villarreal
    • , Jonathan Sanderman
    • , Christian J. Sanders
    • , Isaac Santos
    • , Chris Sharples
    • , Andrew D. L. Steven
    • , Toni Cannard
    • , Stacey M. Trevathan-Tackett
    •  & Carlos M. Duarte
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Condensation of organic vapors is a main factor controlling the growth of atmospheric particles. Here the authors identify a distribution of organic vapors in a forested environment able to explain nanoparticle growth at the same location, contributing to understanding aerosol climate effects.

    • Claudia Mohr
    • , Joel A. Thornton
    • , Arto Heitto
    • , Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker
    • , Anna Lutz
    • , Ilona Riipinen
    • , Juan Hong
    • , Neil M. Donahue
    • , Mattias Hallquist
    • , Tuukka Petäjä
    • , Markku Kulmala
    •  & Taina Yli-Juuti
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Considering air pollution-induced health risks from a consumption perspective is important. Here the authors evaluated the premature deaths resulting from household consumption across 30 Chinese provinces and find that rural households can cause a similar number of pollution-induced deaths as urban households despite a larger and wealthier urban population, due to the combustion of solid fuel.

    • Hongyan Zhao
    • , Guannan Geng
    • , Qiang Zhang
    • , Steven J. Davis
    • , Xin Li
    • , Yang Liu
    • , Liqun Peng
    • , Meng Li
    • , Bo Zheng
    • , Hong Huo
    • , Lin Zhang
    • , Daven K. Henze
    • , Zhifu Mi
    • , Zhu Liu
    • , Dabo Guan
    •  & Kebin He
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Gigantic jets, lightning discharges originating from tropical thunderstorms that can reach the base of the ionosphere at 90 km altitude, have not been captured using high-speed video cameras before. Here, the first such images are reported, showing a step-wise evolution of gigantic jets during their rising phase.

    • Oscar A. van der Velde
    • , Joan Montanyà
    • , Jesús A. López
    •  & Steven A. Cummer
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Forests emit compounds into the atmosphere that are oxidized into highly oxygenated molecules that serve as precursors for cloud condensation nuclei–a process that impacts the climate, but is poorly represented in models. Here the authors create a new model that accurately depicts highly oxygenated molecule and climate dynamics over Boreal forests.

    • Pontus Roldin
    • , Mikael Ehn
    • , Theo Kurtén
    • , Tinja Olenius
    • , Matti P. Rissanen
    • , Nina Sarnela
    • , Jonas Elm
    • , Pekka Rantala
    • , Liqing Hao
    • , Noora Hyttinen
    • , Liine Heikkinen
    • , Douglas R. Worsnop
    • , Lukas Pichelstorfer
    • , Carlton Xavier
    • , Petri Clusius
    • , Emilie Öström
    • , Tuukka Petäjä
    • , Markku Kulmala
    • , Hanna Vehkamäki
    • , Annele Virtanen
    • , Ilona Riipinen
    •  & Michael Boy
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Climate dynamics in Earth’s distant history can provide important forecasting for future changes, but uncertainties in proxy-derived carbon dioxide results are common. Here Da and colleagues present a refined paleosol proxy for carbon dioxide reconstruction, and report persistently low levels ( < 300 ppm) throughout the Pleistocene interglacials.

    • Jiawei Da
    • , Yi Ge Zhang
    • , Gen Li
    • , Xianqiang Meng
    •  & Junfeng Ji
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The oceanic magnesium cycle is closely linked to Earth’s carbon cycle and long-term climate change, due to processes such as continental weathering and authigenic mineral formation. Here, the authors update the global oceanic magnesium budget by quantifying the flux of magnesium from oceans to marine sediments and the associated isotopic fractionation.

    • Richard D. Berg
    • , Evan A. Solomon
    •  & Fang-Zhen Teng