Ecology

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Prior studies have examined fixed traits that correlate with plant invasiveness. Here the authors use a database of population matrices to compare demographic traits of invasive species in their native and invaded ranges, finding that demographic amplification is an important predictor of invasiveness.

    • Kim Jelbert
    • , Danielle Buss
    • , Jenni McDonald
    • , Stuart Townley
    • , Miguel Franco
    • , Iain Stott
    • , Owen Jones
    • , Roberto Salguero-Gómez
    • , Yvonne Buckley
    • , Tiffany Knight
    • , Matthew Silk
    • , Francesca Sargent
    • , Simon Rolph
    • , Phil Wilson
    •  & Dave Hodgson
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Photosynthesis generates reactive oxygen species that can damage cells. Here, the authors show that unicellular predators of photosynthetic prey have shared responses to photosynthetic oxidative stress and these may also have been important for the evolution of endosymbiosis.

    • Akihiro Uzuka
    • , Yusuke Kobayashi
    • , Ryo Onuma
    • , Shunsuke Hirooka
    • , Yu Kanesaki
    • , Hirofumi Yoshikawa
    • , Takayuki Fujiwara
    •  & Shin-ya Miyagishima
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The basis of sexual dimorphism in non-model species may be elusive, in part due to a lack of genomic and molecular resources. Here, Li et al. report a high-quality anuran genome and reveal candidate genes and pathways associated with shaping sexually dimorphic nuptial spines in a moustache toad.

    • Jun Li
    • , Haiyan Yu
    • , Wenxia Wang
    • , Chao Fu
    • , Wei Zhang
    • , Fengming Han
    •  & Hua Wu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Climate affects dynamics of infectious diseases, but the impact on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) epidemiology isn’t well understood. Here, Baker et al. model the influence of temperature, humidity and rainfall on RSV epidemiology in the USA and Mexico and predict impact of climate change on RSV dynamics.

    • Rachel E. Baker
    • , Ayesha S. Mahmud
    • , Caroline E. Wagner
    • , Wenchang Yang
    • , Virginia E. Pitzer
    • , Cecile Viboud
    • , Gabriel A. Vecchi
    • , C. Jessica E. Metcalf
    •  & Bryan T. Grenfell
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Recent studies have suggested that hybridization can facilitate adaptive radiations. Here, the authors show that opportunity for hybridization differentiates Lake Mweru, where cichlids radiated, and Lake Bangweulu, where cichlids did not radiate despite ecological opportunity in both lakes.

    • Joana I. Meier
    • , Rike B. Stelkens
    • , Domino A. Joyce
    • , Salome Mwaiko
    • , Numel Phiri
    • , Ulrich K. Schliewen
    • , Oliver M. Selz
    • , Catherine E. Wagner
    • , Cyprian Katongo
    •  & Ole Seehausen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Abrupt land changes may have long-lasting effects on local biodiversity. Here, Jung et al. show that past abrupt land change reduces species richness and abundance, and alters assemblage composition, with recovery often taking more than 10 years.

    • Martin Jung
    • , Pedram Rowhani
    •  & Jörn P. W. Scharlemann
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Healthy coral reefs have an acoustic signature known to be attractive to coral and fish larvae during settlement. Here the authors use playback experiments in the field to show that healthy reef sounds can increase recruitment of juvenile fishes to degraded coral reef habitat, suggesting that acoustic playback could be used as a reef management strategy.

    • Timothy A. C. Gordon
    • , Andrew N. Radford
    • , Isla K. Davidson
    • , Kasey Barnes
    • , Kieran McCloskey
    • , Sophie L. Nedelec
    • , Mark G. Meekan
    • , Mark I. McCormick
    •  & Stephen D. Simpson
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Viral genomic DNA is often modified to evade the host bacterial restriction system. Here the authors identified 2′-deoxy-7-deazaguanine modifications on phage DNA by comparative genomics and experimental validation, showing their role in genome protection.

    • Geoffrey Hutinet
    • , Witold Kot
    • , Liang Cui
    • , Roman Hillebrand
    • , Seetharamsingh Balamkundu
    • , Shanmugavel Gnanakalai
    • , Ramesh Neelakandan
    • , Alexander B. Carstens
    • , Chuan Fa Lui
    • , Denise Tremblay
    • , Deborah Jacobs-Sera
    • , Mandana Sassanfar
    • , Yan-Jiun Lee
    • , Peter Weigele
    • , Sylvain Moineau
    • , Graham F. Hatfull
    • , Peter C. Dedon
    • , Lars H. Hansen
    •  & Valérie de Crécy-Lagard
  • Article
    | Open Access

    It remains challenging to estimate carbon accumulation rates in tidal wetlands on a scale as large as the conterminous US. Here, the authors find that mean C accumulation rates vary greatly among watershed regions but not among vegetation types, and that tidal wetlands’ C sequestration capability will remain or increase by 2100, suggesting a resilience to sea level rise.

    • Farming Wang
    • , Xiaoliang Lu
    • , Christian J. Sanders
    •  & Jianwu Tang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Climate-induced poleward shifts in plant distributions could flatten latitudinal diversity gradients. However, here the authors show that the spread of forests after the last ice age reduced diversity in central and northern Europe, and that human land-use over the past 5000 years strengthened the latitudinal gradient in plant diversity.

    • Thomas Giesecke
    • , Steffen Wolters
    • , Jacqueline F. N. van Leeuwen
    • , Pim W. O. van der Knaap
    • , Michelle Leydet
    •  & Simon Brewer
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Drivers of spatial differences in leaf phenology are not as widely studied as temporal differences. Here the authors show that the spatial variation of leaf unfolding in 8 deciduous tree species in Europe can be explained by local adaptation to long-term mean climate conditions.

    • Marc Peaucelle
    • , Ivan A. Janssens
    • , Benjamin D. Stocker
    • , Adrià Descals Ferrando
    • , Yongshuo H. Fu
    • , Roberto Molowny-Horas
    • , Philippe Ciais
    •  & Josep Peñuelas
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Swimming bacteria perform collective motion at high cell density, yet it is unclear how this behaviour affects their ability to follow substance gradients in the environment. Here, Colin et al. address this question by studying motion of Escherichia coli in controlled chemical gradients.

    • Remy Colin
    • , Knut Drescher
    •  & Victor Sourjik
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Whether Australia’s Pleistocene megafauna extinctions were caused by climate change, humans, or both is debated. Here, the authors infer the spatio-temporal trajectories of regional extinctions and find that water availability mediates the relationship among climate, human migration and megafauna extinctions.

    • Frédérik Saltré
    • , Joël Chadoeuf
    • , Katharina J. Peters
    • , Matthew C. McDowell
    • , Tobias Friedrich
    • , Axel Timmermann
    • , Sean Ulm
    •  & Corey J. A. Bradshaw
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Asian summer monsoons and their links to global temperature changes have been the subject of intense debate. Here the authors reconstruct the Asian monsoon climate since the late Miocene, using plant silica records of C4 and C3 grasses in central China, and find that global cooling caused Asian monsoon rainfall to decrease markedly in the late Pliocene.

    • Hanlin Wang
    • , Huayu Lu
    • , Lin Zhao
    • , Hongyan Zhang
    • , Fang Lei
    •  & Yichao Wang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Iron is critical for fueling marine primary productivity, but its concentration is often vanishingly low in the ocean. Here, the authors show that though icebergs serve as vehicles delivering the largest supply of iron to polar oceans, the amount of iron they carry varies widely.

    • Mark J. Hopwood
    • , Dustin Carroll
    • , Juan Höfer
    • , Eric P. Achterberg
    • , Lorenz Meire
    • , Frédéric A. C. Le Moigne
    • , Lennart T. Bach
    • , Charlotte Eich
    • , David A. Sutherland
    •  & Humberto E. González
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Greenhouse gas mitigation can involve land-use changes that alter the habitat available for wildlife. Here, Ohashi et al. perform an integrated assessment showing that climate mitigation can be beneficial for global biodiversity but may entail local biodiversity losses where land-based mitigation is implemented.

    • Haruka Ohashi
    • , Tomoko Hasegawa
    • , Akiko Hirata
    • , Shinichiro Fujimori
    • , Kiyoshi Takahashi
    • , Ikutaro Tsuyama
    • , Katsuhiro Nakao
    • , Yuji Kominami
    • , Nobuyuki Tanaka
    • , Yasuaki Hijioka
    •  & Tetsuya Matsui
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Exceptional alpine plant diversity exists in the Hengduan Mountains. Here, through genome assembly and population genomics studies, the authors find notable intraspecific divergence among Cushion willow populations isolated by the sky island-like habitats and consider it contributes to speciation and biodiversity.

    • Jia-hui Chen
    • , Yuan Huang
    • , Benjamin Brachi
    • , Quan-zheng Yun
    • , Wei Zhang
    • , Wei Lu
    • , Hong-na Li
    • , Wen-qing Li
    • , Xu-dong Sun
    • , Guang-yan Wang
    • , Jun He
    • , Zhuo Zhou
    • , Kai-yun Chen
    • , Yun-heng Ji
    • , Ming-ming Shi
    • , Wen-guang Sun
    • , Yong-ping Yang
    • , Ren-gang Zhang
    • , Richard J. Abbott
    •  & Hang Sun
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Deciphering the origin, age, and composition of deep marine organic carbon remains a challenge for understanding the dynamics of the marine carbon cycle. Here, the authors identify (sub)micron-sized graphite emanating from both high and low temperature hydrothermal vents along the East Pacific Rise, and suggest graphite is a source of old carbon in the deep ocean.

    • Emily R. Estes
    • , Debora Berti
    • , Nicole R. Coffey
    • , Michael F. Hochella Jr.
    • , Andrew S. Wozniak
    •  & George W. Luther III
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Broad scale patterns in the distribution of animal community functional properties could be determined by climate and disrupted by human activities. Here the authors show global patterns in large-mammal trophic structure related to climate variation, which human activities simplify in predictable ways.

    • Manuel Mendoza
    •  & Miguel B. Araújo
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Modelling collective behaviour in different circumstances remains a challenge because of uncertainty related to interaction rule changes. Here, the authors report plasticity in local interaction rules in flocks of wild jackdaws with implications for both natural and artificial collective systems.

    • Hangjian Ling
    • , Guillam E. Mclvor
    • , Joseph Westley
    • , Kasper van der Vaart
    • , Richard T. Vaughan
    • , Alex Thornton
    •  & Nicholas T. Ouellette
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The authors assemble and analyse previously generated mycobiome data linked to geographical locations across the world. They describe the distribution of fungal taxa and show that climate is an important driver of fungal biogeography and that fungal diversity appears to be concentrated at high latitudes.

    • Tomáš Větrovský
    • , Petr Kohout
    • , Martin Kopecký
    • , Antonin Machac
    • , Matěj Man
    • , Barbara Doreen Bahnmann
    • , Vendula Brabcová
    • , Jinlyung Choi
    • , Lenka Meszárošová
    • , Zander Rainier Human
    • , Clémentine Lepinay
    • , Salvador Lladó
    • , Rubén López-Mondéjar
    • , Tijana Martinović
    • , Tereza Mašínová
    • , Daniel Morais
    • , Diana Navrátilová
    • , Iñaki Odriozola
    • , Martina Štursová
    • , Karel Švec
    • , Vojtěch Tláskal
    • , Michaela Urbanová
    • , Joe Wan
    • , Lucia Žifčáková
    • , Adina Howe
    • , Joshua Ladau
    • , Kabir Gabriel Peay
    • , David Storch
    • , Jan Wild
    •  & Petr Baldrian
  • Perspective
    | Open Access

    Parks have a previously unquantified economic value attributable to mental health, a health services value. Here, the authors proposed three methods to estimate this, and applied one of these methods to show that this value is at least US$6 trillion per annum worldwide.

    • Ralf Buckley
    • , Paula Brough
    • , Leah Hague
    • , Ali Chauvenet
    • , Chris Fleming
    • , Elisha Roche
    • , Ernesta Sofija
    •  & Neil Harris
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Warmer temperatures could increase the growth and metabolic rates of microbes. Here, the authors assemble a dataset of thermal performance curves for over 400 bacteria and archaea, showing that metabolic rates are likely to increase under warming, with implications for global carbon cycling.

    • Thomas P. Smith
    • , Thomas J. H. Thomas
    • , Bernardo García-Carreras
    • , Sofía Sal
    • , Gabriel Yvon-Durocher
    • , Thomas Bell
    •  & Samrāt Pawar
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Improving estimates of forest biomass based on remote sensing data is important to assess global carbon cycling. Here the authors develop an approach to use forest gap models to simulate lidar waveforms and compare the outputs with ICESAT-1 GLAS profiles, showing improved estimates across the Amazon basin.

    • Edna Rödig
    • , Nikolai Knapp
    • , Rico Fischer
    • , Friedrich J. Bohn
    • , Ralph Dubayah
    • , Hao Tang
    •  & Andreas Huth
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Global soil carbon dynamics are regulated by the modification of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition by plant carbon input (priming effect). Here, the authors collect soil data along a 2200 km grassland transect on the Tibetan Plateau and find that SOM stability is the major control on priming effect.

    • Leiyi Chen
    • , Li Liu
    • , Shuqi Qin
    • , Guibiao Yang
    • , Kai Fang
    • , Biao Zhu
    • , Yakov Kuzyakov
    • , Pengdong Chen
    • , Yunping Xu
    •  & Yuanhe Yang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Mycorrhizas—mutualistic relationships formed between fungi and most plant species—are functionally linked to soil carbon stocks. Here the authors map the global distribution of mycorrhizal plants and quantify links between mycorrhizal vegetation patterns and terrestrial carbon stocks.

    • Nadejda A. Soudzilovskaia
    • , Peter M. van Bodegom
    • , César Terrer
    • , Maarten van’t Zelfde
    • , Ian McCallum
    • , M. Luke McCormack
    • , Joshua B. Fisher
    • , Mark C. Brundrett
    • , Nuno César de Sá
    •  & Leho Tedersoo
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Rivers are thought to be the largest source of the recalcitrant and abundant black carbon in the ocean. Here, Wagner and colleagues find distinct pools of black carbon between rivers and the open ocean, challenging the long-held assumption that marine black carbon is of terrestrial origin.

    • Sasha Wagner
    • , Jay Brandes
    • , Robert G. M. Spencer
    • , Kun Ma
    • , Sarah Z. Rosengard
    • , Jose Mauro S. Moura
    •  & Aron Stubbins
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Banded iron formations could have formed in the early oceans due to microbial metabolism. Here Dodd and colleagues find little organic carbon in these formations, indicating microbial iron cycling was minimal and could have limited the recycling of important nutrients to overlying waters.

    • Matthew S. Dodd
    • , Dominic Papineau
    • , Franco Pirajno
    • , Yusheng Wan
    •  & Juha A. Karhu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Modern humans and Neanderthals coexisted in the Levant for tens of thousands of years before modern humans spread and replaced Neanderthals. Here, Greenbaum et al. develop a model showing that transmission of disease and genes can explain the maintenance and then collapse of this contact zone.

    • Gili Greenbaum
    • , Wayne M. Getz
    • , Noah A. Rosenberg
    • , Marcus W. Feldman
    • , Erella Hovers
    •  & Oren Kolodny
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Forest soil is known to be a source of the greenhouse gas N2O, but the impact of what is planted in that soil has long been overlooked. Here Machacova and colleagues quantify seasonal N2O fluxes from common boreal tree species in Finland, finding that all trees are net sources of this gas.

    • Katerina Machacova
    • , Elisa Vainio
    • , Otmar Urban
    •  & Mari Pihlatie
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Current projections on rice production do not consider the coupled stresses of impending climate change and the toxin arsenic in paddy soils. Here, the authors examined potential compounding impacts of soil arsenic and a changing climate on rice production and show that climate-induced changes in soil arsenic behaviour and plant response will lead to currently unforeseen losses in paddy rice grain productivity and quality.

    • E. Marie Muehe
    • , Tianmei Wang
    • , Carolin F. Kerl
    • , Britta Planer-Friedrich
    •  & Scott Fendorf
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Iron is crucial for marine photosynthesis, but observational constraints on the magnitude of key iron cycle processes are lacking. Here the authors use a range of observational data sets to demonstrate that the balance between iron re-supply and removal in the subsurface controls upper ocean iron limitation.

    • Alessandro Tagliabue
    • , Andrew R. Bowie
    • , Timothy DeVries
    • , Michael J. Ellwood
    • , William M. Landing
    • , Angela Milne
    • , Daniel C. Ohnemus
    • , Benjamin S. Twining
    •  & Philip W. Boyd
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Nitrogen mineralisation (Nmin), an important index of soil fertility, is often determined in the laboratory, with an uncertain relationship to Nmin under field conditions. Here the authors show that combining laboratory measurements with environmental data greatly improves predictions of field Nmin at a global scale.

    • A. C. Risch
    • , S. Zimmermann
    • , R. Ochoa-Hueso
    • , M. Schütz
    • , B. Frey
    • , J. L. Firn
    • , P. A. Fay
    • , F. Hagedorn
    • , E. T. Borer
    • , E. W. Seabloom
    • , W. S. Harpole
    • , J. M. H. Knops
    • , R. L. McCulley
    • , A. A. D. Broadbent
    • , C. J. Stevens
    • , M. L. Silveira
    • , P. B. Adler
    • , S. Báez
    • , L. A. Biederman
    • , J. M. Blair
    • , C. S. Brown
    • , M. C. Caldeira
    • , S. L. Collins
    • , P. Daleo
    • , A. di Virgilio
    • , A. Ebeling
    • , N. Eisenhauer
    • , E. Esch
    • , A. Eskelinen
    • , N. Hagenah
    • , Y. Hautier
    • , K. P. Kirkman
    • , A. S. MacDougall
    • , J. L. Moore
    • , S. A. Power
    • , S. M. Prober
    • , C. Roscher
    • , M. Sankaran
    • , J. Siebert
    • , K. L. Speziale
    • , P. M. Tognetti
    • , R. Virtanen
    • , L. Yahdjian
    •  & B. Moser
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The loss of anomalous sulfur isotope compositions from sedimentary rocks has been considered a symptom of permanent atmospheric oxygenation. Here the authors show sulfur and oxygen isotope evidence from < 2.31 Ga sedimentary barium sulphates (barites) from the Turee Creek Basin, W. Australia, demonstrating the influence of local non-atmospheric processes on anomalous sulfur isotope signals.

    • B. A. Killingsworth
    • , P. Sansjofre
    • , P. Philippot
    • , P. Cartigny
    • , C. Thomazo
    •  & S. V. Lalonde
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Freshwater systems are important components of the carbon cycle, but the extent of their role in CO2 fluxes is poorly understood. Here Horgby and colleagues show that mountain streams are a surprisingly large source of CO2 to the atmosphere, with annual emissions that belie their spatial extent.

    • Åsa Horgby
    • , Pier Luigi Segatto
    • , Enrico Bertuzzo
    • , Ronny Lauerwald
    • , Bernhard Lehner
    • , Amber J. Ulseth
    • , Torsten W. Vennemann
    •  & Tom J. Battin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Many species’ life cycles have moved earlier in the year because of climate change, but we do not know the consequences for range expansions. The authors show that these advances promote range expansions in species with multiple reproductive cycles per year, but not in species with only one.

    • Callum J. Macgregor
    • , Chris D. Thomas
    • , David B. Roy
    • , Mark A. Beaumont
    • , James R. Bell
    • , Tom Brereton
    • , Jon R. Bridle
    • , Calvin Dytham
    • , Richard Fox
    • , Karl Gotthard
    • , Ary A. Hoffmann
    • , Geoff Martin
    • , Ian Middlebrook
    • , Sӧren Nylin
    • , Philip J. Platts
    • , Rita Rasteiro
    • , Ilik J. Saccheri
    • , Romain Villoutreix
    • , Christopher W. Wheat
    •  & Jane K. Hill
  • Article
    | Open Access

    There is ongoing interest in linking soil microbial diversity to ecosystem function. Here the authors manipulate the diversity and composition of microbial communities and show that complex microbial networks contribute more to ecosystem multifunctionality than simpler or low-diversity networks.

    • Cameron Wagg
    • , Klaus Schlaeppi
    • , Samiran Banerjee
    • , Eiko E. Kuramae
    •  & Marcel G. A. van der Heijden
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Diatoms drive biogeochemical cycling of aluminum by incorporating this element into their shells, but this process has not been quantified in freshwater systems. Here the authors quantify diatom-mediated aluminum fluxes in lakes and determine that they rival the aluminum sink in the global ocean.

    • Dong Liu
    • , Peng Yuan
    • , Qian Tian
    • , Hongchang Liu
    • , Liangliang Deng
    • , Yaran Song
    • , Junming Zhou
    • , Dusan Losic
    • , Jieyu Zhou
    • , Hongzhe Song
    • , Haozhe Guo
    •  & Wenxiao Fan
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Based on single worm whole genome sequencing, the authors here characterise the global evolution of the gastrointestinal parasite Haemonchus contortus and identify genes that play a role in drug resistance as well as climate-driven adaptations involving an epigenetic regulator.

    • G. Sallé
    • , S. R. Doyle
    • , J. Cortet
    • , J. Cabaret
    • , M. Berriman
    • , N. Holroyd
    •  & J. A. Cotton
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Microbes can establish mutualistic interactions with plants and insects. Here, Kim et al. show that Streptomyces bacteria can protect strawberry plants and honeybees from pathogens, can move into the plant vascular tissue from soil and from flowers, and are transferred among flowers by the pollinators.

    • Da-Ran Kim
    • , Gyeongjun Cho
    • , Chang-Wook Jeon
    • , David M. Weller
    • , Linda S. Thomashow
    • , Timothy C. Paulitz
    •  & Youn-Sig Kwak
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential of organic methods is poorly understood. Here, the authors assess the GHG impact of a 100% shift to organic food production in England and Wales and find that direct GHG emissions are reduced with organic farming, but when increased land use abroad to allow for production shortfalls is factored in, GHG emissions are elevated well-above the baseline.

    • Laurence G. Smith
    • , Guy J. D. Kirk
    • , Philip J. Jones
    •  & Adrian G. Williams
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Protected areas are important refugia for wildlife, so if climate conditions within them change, wildlife could lose critical suitable habitat. Here the authors calculate the projected gain and loss of climate conditions within terrestrial protected areas worldwide.

    • Samuel Hoffmann
    • , Severin D. H. Irl
    •  & Carl Beierkuhnlein
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Satellite-borne radar systems are promising tools to obtain spatial habitat data with complete geographic coverage. Here the authors show that freely available Sentinel-1 radar data perform as well as standard airborne laser scanning data for mapping biodiversity of 12 taxa across temperate forests in Germany.

    • Soyeon Bae
    • , Shaun R. Levick
    • , Lea Heidrich
    • , Paul Magdon
    • , Benjamin F. Leutner
    • , Stephan Wöllauer
    • , Alla Serebryanyk
    • , Thomas Nauss
    • , Peter Krzystek
    • , Martin M. Gossner
    • , Peter Schall
    • , Christoph Heibl
    • , Claus Bässler
    • , Inken Doerfler
    • , Ernst-Detlef Schulze
    • , Franz-Sebastian Krah
    • , Heike Culmsee
    • , Kirsten Jung
    • , Marco Heurich
    • , Markus Fischer
    • , Sebastian Seibold
    • , Simon Thorn
    • , Tobias Gerlach
    • , Torsten Hothorn
    • , Wolfgang W. Weisser
    •  & Jörg Müller
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Fractured rocks of impact craters have been suggested to be suitable hosts for deep microbial communities on Earth, and potentially other terrestrial planets, yet direct evidence remains elusive. Here, the authors show that the Siljan impact structure is host to long-term deep methane-cycling microbial activity.

    • Henrik Drake
    • , Nick M. W. Roberts
    • , Christine Heim
    • , Martin J. Whitehouse
    • , Sandra Siljeström
    • , Ellen Kooijman
    • , Curt Broman
    • , Magnus Ivarsson
    •  & Mats E. Åström
  • Review Article
    | Open Access

    Swarms of crustaceans called krill dominate Antarctic ecosystems, yet their influence on biogeochemical cycles remains a mystery. Here Cavan and colleagues review the role of krill in the Southern Ocean, and the impact of the krill fishery on ocean fertilisation and the carbon sink.

    • E. L. Cavan
    • , A. Belcher
    • , A. Atkinson
    • , S. L. Hill
    • , S. Kawaguchi
    • , S. McCormack
    • , B. Meyer
    • , S. Nicol
    • , L. Ratnarajah
    • , K. Schmidt
    • , D. K. Steinberg
    • , G. A. Tarling
    •  & P. W. Boyd
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Pumas are experiencing increased isolation as human persecution and habitat loss fragment the populations of this once widespread species. Here, the authors estimate the genomic consequences of this isolation by analyzing the genomes of ten pumas from across North and South America.

    • Nedda F. Saremi
    • , Megan A. Supple
    • , Ashley Byrne
    • , James A. Cahill
    • , Luiz Lehmann Coutinho
    • , Love Dalén
    • , Henrique V. Figueiró
    • , Warren E. Johnson
    • , Heather J. Milne
    • , Stephen J. O’Brien
    • , Brendan O’Connell
    • , David P. Onorato
    • , Seth P. D. Riley
    • , Jeff A. Sikich
    • , Daniel R. Stahler
    • , Priscilla Marqui Schmidt Villela
    • , Christopher Vollmers
    • , Robert K. Wayne
    • , Eduardo Eizirik
    • , Russell B. Corbett-Detig
    • , Richard E. Green
    • , Christopher C. Wilmers
    •  & Beth Shapiro
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Parental care can take many forms but how this diversity arises is not well understood. Here, the authors compile data for over 1300 amphibian species and show that different forms of care evolve at different rates, prolonged care can be easily reduced, and biparental care is evolutionarily unstable.

    • Andrew I. Furness
    •  & Isabella Capellini