Dosage compensation

Dosage compensation is a process that balances expression of sex-linked and autosomal genes in the heterogametic sex. For example, one X chromosome in XX female mammals is randomly inactivated in every cell, and gene transcription levels from the X chromosome of XO or XY male Drosophila is elevated to approximately equal the output of two sex chromosomes in XX females.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research |

    The noncoding RNA Xist regulates the accessibility of select chromatin regions on the inactive X chromosome (Xi) by directly inhibiting the chromosome remodeler BRG1 and by expelling it from the Xi.

    • Teddy Jégu
    • , Roy Blum
    • , Jesse C. Cochrane
    • , Lin Yang
    • , Chen-Yu Wang
    • , Maud-Emmanuelle Gilles
    • , David Colognori
    • , Attila Szanto
    • , Sharon K. Marr
    • , Robert E. Kingston
    •  & Jeannie T. Lee
  • Research | | open

    The inactive X chromosome (Xi) has an atypical structure, with global loss of TADs, A/B compartments and formation of mega-domains. Here the authors show that the non-canonical SMC family protein, SmcHD1, important for developmental gene silencing on Xi, antagonises TAD formation and compartmentalization on the Xi in a transcription independent way.

    • Michal R. Gdula
    • , Tatyana B. Nesterova
    • , Greta Pintacuda
    • , Jonathan Godwin
    • , Ye Zhan
    • , Hakan Ozadam
    • , Michael McClellan
    • , Daniella Moralli
    • , Felix Krueger
    • , Catherine M. Green
    • , Wolf Reik
    • , Skirmantas Kriaucionis
    • , Edith Heard
    • , Job Dekker
    •  & Neil Brockdorff
  • Research | | open

    The mammalian inactive X-chromosome (Xi) is organized into megadomains and superloops directed by the noncoding loci, Dxz4 and Firre. Here the authors provide evidence that megadomains do not precede Xist expression or Xi gene silencing, and suggest that Dxz4, Firre, and megadomains are dispensable for Xi silencing and escape from X-inactivation.

    • John E. Froberg
    • , Stefan F. Pinter
    • , Andrea J. Kriz
    • , Teddy Jégu
    •  & Jeannie T. Lee
  • Research | | open

    REX1 has been shown to regulate pluripotency of ESCs, genomic imprinting and preimplantation development in mice. Here the authors provide evidence that REX1 is the prime target of RNF12 E3 ubiquitin ligase and that Rex1 removal rescues the Rnf12 knockout phenotype in imprinted X chromosome inactivation in mice.

    • Cristina Gontan
    • , Hegias Mira-Bontenbal
    • , Aristea Magaraki
    • , Catherine Dupont
    • , Tahsin Stefan Barakat
    • , Eveline Rentmeester
    • , Jeroen Demmers
    •  & Joost Gribnau
  • Research | | open

    Although Ftx lncRNA has been linked to X-chromosome inactivation, its physiological roles in vivo remain unclear. Here the authors show that deletion of mouse Ftx causes eye abnormalities similar to human microphthalmia in a subset of female mice but rarely in males and provide evidence that Ftx plays a role in gene silencing on the inactive X chromosome.

    • Yusuke Hosoi
    • , Miki Soma
    • , Hirosuke Shiura
    • , Takashi Sado
    • , Hidetoshi Hasuwa
    • , Kuniya Abe
    • , Takashi Kohda
    • , Fumitoshi Ishino
    •  & Shin Kobayashi
  • Research | | open

    DNA methylation is critically involved in X chromosome inactivation (XCI) and dosage compensation, yet some X-chromosomal genes escape XCI. Here, Lujik et al. identify three autosomal genetic loci that associate with differential DNA methylation near genes that variably escape XCI in females.

    • René Luijk
    • , Haoyu Wu
    • , Cavin K Ward-Caviness
    • , Eilis Hannon
    • , Elena Carnero-Montoro
    • , Josine L. Min
    • , Pooja Mandaviya
    • , Martina Müller-Nurasyid
    • , Hailiang Mei
    • , Silvere M. van der Maarel
    • , Marian Beekman
    • , Ruud van der Breggen
    • , Joris Deelen
    • , Nico Lakenberg
    • , Matthijs Moed
    • , H. Eka D. Suchiman
    • , Wibowo Arindrarto
    • , Peter van’t Hof
    • , Marc Jan Bonder
    • , Patrick Deelen
    • , Ettje F. Tigchelaar
    • , Alexandra Zhernakova
    • , Dasha V. Zhernakova
    • , Jenny van Dongen
    • , Jouke J. Hottenga
    • , René Pool
    • , Aaron Isaacs
    • , Bert A. Hofman
    • , Mila Jhamai
    • , Carla J. H. van der Kallen
    • , Casper G. Schalkwijk
    • , Coen D. A. Stehouwer
    • , Leonard H. van den Berg
    • , Michiel van Galen
    • , Martijn Vermaat
    • , Jeroen van Rooij
    • , André G. Uitterlinden
    • , Michael Verbiest
    • , Marijn Verkerk
    • , P. Szymon M. Kielbasa
    • , Jan Bot
    • , Irene Nooren
    • , Freerk van Dijk
    • , Morris A. Swertz
    • , Diana van Heemst
    • , Caroline Relton
    • , Jonathan Mill
    • , Melanie Waldenberger
    • , Jordana T. Bell
    • , Rick Jansen
    • , Alexandra Zhernakova
    • , Lude Franke
    • , Peter A. C. ‘t Hoen
    • , Dorret I. Boomsma
    • , Cornelia M. van Duijn
    • , Marleen M. J. van Greevenbroek
    • , Jan H. Veldink
    • , Cisca Wijmenga
    • , Joyce van Meurs
    • , Lucia Daxinger
    • , P. Eline Slagboom
    • , Erik W. van Zwet
    •  & Bastiaan T. Heijmans

News and Comment