Diseases

Definition

Diseases are abnormal conditions that have a specific set of signs and symptoms. Diseases can have an external cause, such as an infection, or an internal cause, such as autoimmune diseases.

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Latest Research and Reviews

  • Protocols |

    The levels of monoamines and their cofactors in cerebrospinal fluid are strong indicators for dopamine and serotonin biosynthesis and turnover. This protocol describes a set of HPLC-based approaches for the quantitative detection of these molecules.

    • Marta Batllori
    • , Marta Molero-Luis
    • , Aida Ormazabal
    • , Mercedes Casado
    • , Cristina Sierra
    • , Angels García-Cazorla
    • , Manju Kurian
    • , Simon Pope
    • , Simon J Heales
    •  & Rafael Artuch
    Nature Protocols 12, 2359–2375
  • Reviews |

    Recent decades have seen an alarming rise in the incidence of autoimmune disease. In a Perspective, Matarese and colleagues discuss the evidence showing that changes in diet and metabolic workload can account for, at least in part, rises in the frequency of autoimmune disease.

    • Veronica De Rosa
    • , Antonio La Cava
    •  & Giuseppe Matarese
    Nature Immunology 18, 1190–1196
  • Research | | open

    NADPH oxidase NOX4 has been linked to poor cancer survival. Here the authors show that NOX4 regulates drug resistance in renal cancer carcinoma by regulating PKM2 and that NOX4 activity is allosterically activated by reduced mitochondrial ATP levels thus coupling energy metabolism to drug resistance.

    • Karthigayan Shanmugasundaram
    • , Bijaya K. Nayak
    • , William E. Friedrichs
    • , Dharam Kaushik
    • , Ronald Rodriguez
    •  & Karen Block
  • Research | | open

    MicroRNAs play an important role in stem cell fate and tumorigenesis. In this work, the authors show that miR-31 controls mammary stem cell self-renewal and tumorigenesis by simultaneously activating Wnt/β-catenin and repressing TGFβ signaling pathways.

    • Cong Lv
    • , Fengyin Li
    • , Xiang Li
    • , Yuhua Tian
    • , Yue Zhang
    • , Xiaole Sheng
    • , Yongli Song
    • , Qingyong Meng
    • , Shukai Yuan
    • , Liming Luan
    • , Thomas Andl
    • , Xu Feng
    • , Baowei Jiao
    • , Mingang Xu
    • , Maksim V. Plikus
    • , Xing Dai
    • , Christopher Lengner
    • , Wei Cui
    • , Fazheng Ren
    • , Jianwei Shuai
    • , Sarah E. Millar
    •  & Zhengquan Yu
  • Research | | open

    There is an urgent need to identify predictive markers for selecting responders to immunotherapy. Here, the authors describe a transcriptional predictor of immunotherapy response and assess it in genomic data from ~ 10,000 human tissues across 30 different cancer types.

    • Chan-Young Ock
    • , Jun-Eul Hwang
    • , Bhumsuk Keam
    • , Sang-Bae Kim
    • , Jae-Jun Shim
    • , Hee-Jin Jang
    • , Sarang Park
    • , Bo Hwa Sohn
    • , Minse Cha
    • , Jaffer A. Ajani
    • , Scott Kopetz
    • , Keun-Wook Lee
    • , Tae Min Kim
    • , Dae Seog Heo
    •  & Ju-Seog Lee
  • Reviews |

    An increasing body of evidence supports a role for B cells in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Here, the authors discuss the mechanisms and consequences of B cell activation in T1DM and how these cells might contribute to the development of diabetic kidney disease.

    • Mia J. Smith
    • , Kimber M. Simmons
    •  & John C. Cambier

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