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Diabetes describes a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar levels. Diabetes can be caused by the pancreas not producing insulin (type 1 diabetes) or by insulin resistance (cells do not respond to insulin; type 2 diabetes).
Lipid turnover in tissues can be calculated from ratios of different carbon isotopes. Here the authors use this approach to study lipid turnover in two distinct adipose tissue depots and find that, in obese individuals, visceral fat is more lipolytic than subcutaneous fat.
Metabolism-disrupting chemicals (MDCs) are a subclass of endocrine-disrupting chemicals that affect energy homeostasis. Here, Angel Nadal and colleagues review the main mechanisms used by MDCs to alter energy balance, information that should help to identify new MDCs, as well as novel targets of their action.
This Review provides a framework for understanding how ambient temperature affects metabolic, immune and cardiovascular phenotypes in mice, as well as the importance of ambient temperature on modelling of human diseases in these small rodents. Ganeshan and Chawla suggest that warming the mouse might enable more predictive modelling of human diseases and therapies.
Diabetes mellitus is one of the largest epidemics the world faces and is now an important public health challenge. The 'SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth' consortium now reports that, between 2002 and 2012, incidence rates of type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus grew among all youth in the USA, more so in ethnic minorities.
Treatment with liraglutide (3.0 mg once daily for 3 years), a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist that lowers levels of glucose and reduces body weight, reduced the risk of 'on treatment' type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) versus placebo in patients with prediabetes and obesity. Whether this treatment affects the natural history of the progression from prediabetes to T2DM remains to be established.
International guidelines recognize surgery as a standard treatment option for type 2 diabetes mellitus, including in mildly obese individuals who fail to respond to conventional therapies. A new report from the STAMPEDE trial now provides further evidence and emphasizes the need for health care regulators to introduce appropriate reimbursement policies for metabolic surgery.
The short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate and butyrate, which are released from specialized diets by gut microbes, protect non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice against insulitis and slow the progression of diabetes.