Cytokines

Cytokines are proteins, peptides or glycoproteins secreted by lymphocytes and monocytes that regulate immune responses, haematopoiesis and lymphocyte development. Cytokines include interleukins, chemokines and other signalling molecules. Each cytokine acts through its own receptor on target cells, and these receptors include members of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily and tumour necrosis factor (TNF).

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Latest Research and Reviews

News and Comment

  • News and Views |

    Combined immunotherapy using checkpoint blockade (anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD-1) and the DPP4 inhibitor sitagliptin reveals the existence of a T cell– and eosinophil-targeted immunotherapy approach for solid tumors.

    • Ariel Munitz
    •  & Simon Patrick Hogan
    Nature Immunology 20, 250-252
  • Research Highlights |

    Two studies show that cancer cells contain sufficient quantities of immunostimulatory nucleic acids to trigger interferon signalling, increase antitumour immunity and overcome resistance to checkpoint blockade. Loss of the RNA-editing enzyme ADAR1 enables tumour cells to sense these innate ligands.

    • M. Teresa Villanueva
  • News and Views |

    The N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA-modification pathway substantially affects the outcome of viral infection. Studies now show that m6A modification of transcripts encoding type I interferons limits the duration of anti-viral signaling.

    • Charles R. Hesser
    •  & Britt A. Glaunsinger
    Nature Immunology 20, 116-118
  • News and Views |

    Innate lymphoid cell–derived cytokine IL-13 promotes the maintenance of intestinal stem cells through stabilization of β-catenin. The circular RNA circPan3 regulates mRNA encoding the cytokine receptor subunit IL-13Rα and downstream IL-13 signaling to stabilize the β-catenin pathway in intestinal stem cells.

    • Frank Soveg
    • , Jakob von Moltke
    •  & Ram Savan
    Nature Immunology 20, 114-116