Chronic inflammation

Definition

Chronic inflammation refers to a prolonged inflammatory response that involves a progressive change in the type of cells present at the site of inflammation. It is characterized by the simultaneous destruction and repair of the tissue from the inflammatory process. It can follow an acute form of inflammation or be a prolonged low-grade form.

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News and Comment

  • News and Views |

    A new study in mice suggests that a single drug, thymosin α1, may simultaneously rectify the impaired trafficking of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in cystic fibrosis (CF) and reduce inflammation, offering new hope for CF treatment.

    • André M Cantin
    •  & John W Hanrahan
    Nature Medicine 23, 536–538
  • News and Views |

    IRE1α is a stress sensor that is activated by a high-fat diet. In adipose-tissue macrophages, it serves as a major switch toward pro-inflammatory M1 polarization and thereby contributes to obesity and associated diseases.

    • Bojan Bujisic
    •  & Fabio Martinon
    Nature Immunology 18, 479–480
  • News and Views |

    Inflammation is a recognized component of many diseases, including atherosclerosis and its complications. IL-1β is a crucial cytokine promoting the inflammatory cascade. In the February 2017 issue of Nature Medicine, Furman et al. show that metabolites can trigger inflammation via inflammasome-dependent IL-1β production in elderly individuals. Intriguingly, caffeine is protective by offsetting this activation.

    • Filip K. Swirski
    •  & Matthias Nahrendorf
  • News and Views |

    Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) is a cytokine associated with inflammation, obesity and metabolic dysregulation. Surprisingly, IL-1β is also required for maintaining steady-state glucose homeostasis by potentiating postprandial insulin secretion.

    • Marit Hjorth
    •  & Mark A Febbraio
    Nature Immunology 18, 247–248
  • News and Views |

    Elevated signaling via the metabolic checkpoint kinase mTORC1 in macrophages stimulates spontaneous granuloma formation in mice and is associated with the progression of sarcoidosis in humans.

    • Antonio J Pagán
    •  & Lalita Ramakrishnan
    Nature Immunology 18, 252–253