Chromatin remodelling

Chromatin remodelling is the process by which the DNA wrapped within nucleosomes becomes accessible to regulatory elements, such as transcription factors and the replication machinery. Chromatin remodelling can result from covalent modification of histones by histone acetyltransferases, histone deacetylases, histone methyltransferases or kinases, and by ATP-dependent protein complexes that physically remodel, move or remove nucleosomes.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research | | open

    Chromatin remodelling enzymes (remodellers) regulate DNA accessibility of eukaryotic genomes, which rely in large part on an ability to reposition nucleosomes. Here the authors use three-colour single-molecule FRET to simultaneously monitor remodeller-induced DNA movements on both sides of the nucleosome in real-time.

    • Anton Sabantsev
    • , Robert F. Levendosky
    • , Xiaowei Zhuang
    • , Gregory D. Bowman
    •  & Sebastian Deindl
  • Research |

    A chromatin-focused chemical screen identified CBP/EP300 bromodomain inhibitors as enhancers of reprogramming. These inhibitors decrease histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation, chromatin accessibility and expression of somatic-specific genes.

    • Ayyub Ebrahimi
    • , Kenan Sevinç
    • , Gülben Gürhan Sevinç
    • , Adam P. Cribbs
    • , Martin Philpott
    • , Fırat Uyulur
    • , Tunç Morova
    • , James E. Dunford
    • , Sencer Göklemez
    • , Şule Arı
    • , Udo Oppermann
    •  & Tamer T. Önder
  • Research | | open

    Nepon-Sixt, Bryant, and Alexandrow show that Myc increases the chromatin accessibility through Myc-Box II, activating Cdc45-MCM-GINS helicases at Myc-targeted sites. This study highlights a non-transcriptional role for Myc in over-activating DNA replication, providing insight into Myc-driven tumorigenesis.

    • Brook S. Nepon-Sixt
    • , Victoria L. Bryant
    •  & Mark G. Alexandrow
  • Reviews |

    Eukaryotes differ substantially from bacteria and archaea owing to their nucleosome-based packaging of DNA. In this Review, Talbert, Meers and Henikoff place gene regulation in an evolutionary context by discussing how the emergence and diversification of eukaryotic chromatin provided both challenges and opportunities for intricate mechanisms of gene regulation in eukaryotes.

    • Paul B. Talbert
    • , Michael P. Meers
    •  & Steven Henikoff

News and Comment

  • News and Views |

    The observation of a room-temperature stable liquid phase of electrons and holes in a quasi-two-dimensional photocell paves the way towards optoelectronic devices that harness collective phenomena.

    • Stéphane Berciaud
    Nature Photonics 13, 225-226
  • News and Views |

    BAF is a heterogenous chromatin-remodelling complex, frequently mutated in cancer. A study now defines genome-wide localization patterns of three complexes, cBAF, PBAF and previously unknown ncBAF, and reveals the ncBAF complex as a specific vulnerability in synovial sarcoma and malignant rhabdoid tumours.

    • Divya Reddy
    •  & Jerry L. Workman
    Nature Cell Biology 20, 1332-1333
  • Research Highlights |

    Two new studies in Nature provide insight into the role of nucleosomes in gene regulation. One describes the genome-wide organization of nucleosomes and the other details how transcription factor binding to DNA is affected by the presence of nucleosomes.

    • Dorothy Clyde