Choledocholithiasis is the presence of one or more gallstones in the common bile duct. These gallstones have usually been formed in the gall bladder and passed into the common bile duct. Choledocholithiasis can lead to obstruction of the common bile duct and ascending cholangitis, which is a life-threatening infection.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Reviews |

    Since its introduction in 1974, endoscopic extraction of common bile stones has been continually evolving. Techniques such as endoscopic papillary large-balloon dilation after sphincterotomy have improved safety, and the introduction of cholangioscopically guided electrohydraulic and laser lithotripsy has expanded patient eligibility. This Review focuses on advances in endoscopic management of common bile duct stones, in particular the removal of 'difficult' stones.

    • Guru Trikudanathan
    • , Mustafa A. Arain
    • , Rajeev Attam
    •  & Martin L. Freeman