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Cellular neuroscience is the study of neurons at the cellular level. It includes cell morphology and physiological properties such as membrane trafficking, synthesis and transport of proteins, and synaptic plasticity.
Loss of inhibition in a circuit in the primary somatosensory cortex that controls the activity of layer 5 neurons drives pain hypersensitivity. Restoring this inhibition resets the inhibitory–excitatory balance, producing analgesia.