Cellular immunity

Cellular immunity is a protective immune process that involves the activation of phagocytes, antigen-sensitized cytotoxic T cells and the release of cytokines and chemokines in response to antigen. Cellular immunity is most effective against cells infected with viruses, intracellular bacteria, fungi and protozoans, and cancerous cells. It also mediates transplant rejection.

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Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research |

    Stemness is crucial for the maintenance of long-term T cell memory. Gattinoni and colleagues demonstrate that the transcription factor c-Myb is essential for the establishment of a stemness program in the CD8+ T cell memory compartment.

    • Sanjivan Gautam
    • , Jessica Fioravanti
    • , Wei Zhu
    • , John B. Le Gall
    • , Philip Brohawn
    • , Neal E. Lacey
    • , Jinhui Hu
    • , James D. Hocker
    • , Nga Voong Hawk
    • , Veena Kapoor
    • , William G. Telford
    • , Devikala Gurusamy
    • , Zhiya Yu
    • , Avinash Bhandoola
    • , Hai-Hui Xue
    • , Rahul Roychoudhuri
    • , Brandon W. Higgs
    • , Nicholas P. Restifo
    • , Timothy P. Bender
    • , Yun Ji
    •  & Luca Gattinoni
    Nature Immunology 20, 337-349
  • Research |

    Cross-protective responses across all strains of influenza virus (IAV, IBV and ICV) are a key goal of universal vaccines against influenza. Kedzierska and colleagues identify cytotoxic T cells present in blood and lungs of healthy people that are directed against all strains of influenza virus.

    • Marios Koutsakos
    • , Patricia T. Illing
    • , Thi H. O. Nguyen
    • , Nicole A. Mifsud
    • , Jeremy Chase Crawford
    • , Simone Rizzetto
    • , Auda A. Eltahla
    • , E. Bridie Clemens
    • , Sneha Sant
    • , Brendon Y. Chua
    • , Chinn Yi Wong
    • , E. Kaitlynn Allen
    • , Don Teng
    • , Pradyot Dash
    • , David F. Boyd
    • , Ludivine Grzelak
    • , Weiguang Zeng
    • , Aeron C. Hurt
    • , Ian Barr
    • , Steve Rockman
    • , David C. Jackson
    • , Tom C. Kotsimbos
    • , Allen C. Cheng
    • , Michael Richards
    • , Glen P. Westall
    • , Thomas Loudovaris
    • , Stuart I. Mannering
    • , Michael Elliott
    • , Stuart G. Tangye
    • , Linda M. Wakim
    • , Jamie Rossjohn
    • , Dhanasekaran Vijaykrishna
    • , Fabio Luciani
    • , Paul G. Thomas
    • , Stephanie Gras
    • , Anthony W. Purcell
    •  & Katherine Kedzierska
  • Research |

    An intricately linked homeostasis exists between the gut microbiome and host immune system. Scheffold and colleagues show that intestinal Treg cells upregulate the transcription factor c-Maf in response to specific signals from the gut microenvironment to establish host–microbiota homeostasis.

    • Christian Neumann
    • , Jonas Blume
    • , Urmi Roy
    • , Peggy P. Teh
    • , Ajithkumar Vasanthakumar
    • , Alexander Beller
    • , Yang Liao
    • , Frederik Heinrich
    • , Teresita L. Arenzana
    • , Jason A. Hackney
    • , Celine Eidenschenk
    • , Eric J. C. Gálvez
    • , Christina Stehle
    • , Gitta A. Heinz
    • , Patrick Maschmeyer
    • , Tom Sidwell
    • , Yifang Hu
    • , Derk Amsen
    • , Chiara Romagnani
    • , Hyun-Dong Chang
    • , Andrey Kruglov
    • , Mir-Farzin Mashreghi
    • , Wei Shi
    • , Till Strowig
    • , Sascha Rutz
    • , Axel Kallies
    •  & Alexander Scheffold
  • Research | | open

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have immunomodulatory effects, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Here the authors show that a SCFA, pentanoate, suppresses autoimmune inflammation in mouse models of colitis and multiple sclerosis via epigenetic modulation of immune cell metabolic and functional pathways.

    • Maik Luu
    • , Sabine Pautz
    • , Vanessa Kohl
    • , Rajeev Singh
    • , Rossana Romero
    • , Sébastien Lucas
    • , Jörg Hofmann
    • , Hartmann Raifer
    • , Niyati Vachharajani
    • , Lucia Campos Carrascosa
    • , Boris Lamp
    • , Andrea Nist
    • , Thorsten Stiewe
    • , Yoav Shaul
    • , Till Adhikary
    • , Mario M. Zaiss
    • , Matthias Lauth
    • , Ulrich Steinhoff
    •  & Alexander Visekruna
  • Research | | open

    T cells express specific T cell receptors (TCR) to recognise antigens and initiate adaptive immune responses. Here the authors show, in a mouse model of autoimmune encephalomyelitis, that memory-like CD4 T cells expressing unrelated TCR can also infiltrate the spinal cord and contribute to autoimmunity.

    • Hong-Gyun Lee
    • , Jae-Ung Lee
    • , Do-Hyun Kim
    • , Sangho Lim
    • , Insoo Kang
    •  & Je-Min Choi

News and Comment

  • News and Views |

    The transition of the fetus from the womb to the external world represents an extraordinary challenge. The generation of memory T cells before birth may serve an important role in preparation for this fundamental transition.

    • Ai Ing Lim
    • , Oliver J. Harrison
    •  & Yasmine Belkaid
    Nature Immunology 20, 254-256
  • Research Highlights |

    TRM cells promote a melanoma–immune equilibrium that contains melanoma cells in the epidermis and prevents cancer progression.

    • Yvonne Bordon
  • News and Views |

    A new model proposes that an applied force allows the co-receptor CD8 and the kinase Lck to selectively stabilize TCR interactions with negatively selecting ligands, but not those with positively selecting ligands, during the negative selection of self-reactive thymocytes.

    • Omer Dushek
    •  & Michael L. Dustin
    Nature Immunology 19, 1280-1281