Cell biology

Definition

Cell biology is the discipline of biological sciences that studies the structure, physiology, growth, reproduction and death of cells. Research in cell biology uses microscopic and molecular tools and examines all cell types, from unicellular organisms such as protozoa to the specialised cells that consitutute multicellular organisms.

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Latest Research and Reviews

  • Reviews |

    Cells activate a transcriptional response known as the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) when mitochondrial integrity and function are impaired to promote their recovery. Recent insights into the regulation, mechanisms and functions of the UPRmt have uncovered important links to ageing and ageing-associated diseases.

    • Tomer Shpilka
    •  & Cole M. Haynes
  • Reviews |

    Sphingolipids are a major class of lipids, comprising various species with diverse functions. In addition to being structural elements of membranes, many sphingolipids are bioactive and regulate a myriad of cellular processes. Recent advances have shed new light on the complexity of sphingolipid metabolism and their various roles in physiology and disease.

    • Yusuf A. Hannun
    •  & Lina M. Obeid
  • Research | | open

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase operates within two distinct multiprotein complexes named TORC1 and TORC2. Here the authors report a cryo-EM structure of TORC2, establish its subunit organization, providing a rationale for TORC2’s rapamycin insensitivity and the mutually exclusive inclusion of Avo3/Rictor or Raptor within their respective TOR complex.

    • Manikandan Karuppasamy
    • , Beata Kusmider
    • , Taiana M. Oliveira
    • , Christl Gaubitz
    • , Manoel Prouteau
    • , Robbie Loewith
    •  & Christiane Schaffitzel
  • Research | | open

    Primase is the specialised DNA-dependent RNA polymerase responsible for the initiation of DNA synthesis during DNA replication. Here the authors use a structural biology approach to identify the initiation site in the S. solfataricus PriSLX primase and to demonstrate that its Fe-S cluster is dispensable for primer synthesis.

    • Sandro Holzer
    • , Jiangyu Yan
    • , Mairi L. Kilkenny
    • , Stephen D. Bell
    •  & Luca Pellegrini
  • Research | | open

    The transmembrane receptor integrin is activated by talin, but so far it has remained elusive how talin is recruited to the plasma membrane. Here, the authors identify the Rap1-mediated membrane-targeting mechanism for talin, present the Rap1b/talin-F0 structure and show that talin is a direct Rap1b effector.

    • Liang Zhu
    • , Jun Yang
    • , Thomas Bromberger
    • , Ashley Holly
    • , Fan Lu
    • , Huan Liu
    • , Kevin Sun
    • , Sarah Klapproth
    • , Jamila Hirbawi
    • , Tatiana V. Byzova
    • , Edward F. Plow
    • , Markus Moser
    •  & Jun Qin

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