Bose–Einstein condensates


Bose–Einstein condensates are a state of matter in which all the constituent particles exist in their lowest energy level. The Pauli Exclusion Principle prevents more than one electron (an example of a fermion) per quantum state; however no such limit is imposed on particles known as bosons, such as helium-4 atoms.


Latest Research and Reviews

News and Comment

  • News and Views |

    Flow without friction is a strange phenomenon usually seen in quantum fluids that are cooled to temperatures near absolute zero, but features of superfluidity have now been seen with polaritons at ambient conditions.

    • Thilo Stöferle
  • News and Views |

    A milestone for quantum hydrodynamics may have been reached, with experiments on a black hole-like event horizon for sound waves providing strong evidence for a sonic analogue of Hawking radiation.

    • Iacopo Carusotto
    •  & Roberto Balbinot
    Nature Physics 12, 897–898
  • Comments and Opinion |

    Bose–Einstein condensation in atomic gases was first observed in 1995. As we look back at the past 20 years of this thriving field, it's clear that there is much to celebrate.

    • Wolfgang Ketterle
    Nature Physics 11, 982–983