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Neutrophil adhesion is tightly regulated to enforce protective immunity, but it is unclear how mechanochemical processes such as catch bonds and slip bonds modulate neutrophils in vivo. Here the authors show that a point mutation in the adhesion molecule L-selectin alters mechanochemical regulation to affect neutrophil functions in mice.
In rat models of spinal cord injury, the region of the spinal cord below the site of injury becomes hypoxic owing to inadequate blood flow. This effect on blood flow is due to increased production of neurotransmitters known as ‘trace amines,’ which act on pericytes to constrict blood vessels. Alleviation of hypoxia by hyperoxic breathing or inhibition of trace amine synthesis or action improves locomotor function in the injured rats.
TNF is typically viewed as an inflammatory mediator. Here the authors identify a non-inflammatory mechanism conserved across species whereby the constitutively expressed smooth muscle cell TNF mediates myogenic signal transduction in skeletal muscle resistance arteries and regulates mean arterial blood pressure.
Caroli et al. recently used a haemodynamic computational model to simulate changes in vessel dimensions and blood flow volumes in response to arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation. This study has provided new insights into the use of preoperative ultrasound to identify sites for AVF creation and reduce rates of fistula nonmaturation.